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The Colonial Experiment

The Colonial Experiment

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Published by kbj_batch09
mr. torres
mr. torres

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: kbj_batch09 on Mar 10, 2010
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07/29/2010

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3/10/20101
The Colonial Experiment
The American Occupation of thePhilippines(1899-1935)
WithintheyearaftertheBattleofManilaBay,theAmericansbegantohaveinterestsinpossessingthePhilippinesasagatewaytoaneconomicmarkettoChina.It
wasn’t
longbeforetheUSbegansendingtroopstotheislandstobeginthemilitaryoccupationwhile,atthesametime,helptheFilipinosinsecuringtheirindependence.TheendoftheSpanish-AmericanWarandtheTreatyofParisinDecember,1899ledtothepurchaseofthePhilippinesbytheUSfromSpain.
TherewassomeoppositionfromsomeAmericansonthecolonialambitionsoftheircountry.TheeditorialcartoonshowsUncleSambeingentangledontheTreeofImperialismbythePhilippinedonkeyastheSpanishmerchantwalksawaywiththe$20MtheUSpaidtopurchasetheislands.Buttheoppositionwasonlyfromasmallmajority.Soon,thedecisiontogetthePhilippinesgainedpopularityamongtheAmericanpeople.
The Military Government
TheAmericanmilitarygovernorsofthePhilippines.(ltor)Gen.WesleyMeritt(1898);Gen.ElwellOtis(1898-1900);andGen.ArthurMacArthur(1900-1901)
ThemilitarygovernmentwasthestartofAmericanruleinthePhilippines.Thegovernorwastheextensionofthepresidentialpowerstoruleoveracountryitwasatwarwith.
MilitaryrulebeganonAugust14,1898whenGen.MerrittissuedaproclamationannouncingthebeginningofAmericanrule.
Duringthisperiod,themilitaryservedtheexecutive,legislative,andjudiciaryfunctionsinadministeringtheislands.
Toensureasmoothtransitionofgovernment,theAmericansretainedthecivilandcriminallawsoftheSpanishgovernmentexceptthosecontrarytotheiridealsofdemocracy
 
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ThemilitarygovernmentwasinplacewhentheFilipino-AmericanWarbegan.AseachprovincefelltoAmericans,theywereconsideredas
“pacifiedareas”
wherelocalmunicipalelectionscanbeheld.In1900,areorganizationofthemunicipalgovernmentswasenforced.
An interpreterexplains toFilipino localofficials in LasPinas the newpolicies of localgovernment asAmerican militaryofficers look onand listen.
InMay1899,theSupremeCourtwasreestablished.Itwascomposedofninejustices,sixofwhomwereFilipinos,ledbyChiefJusticeCayetanoArellano.Afterthis,theothercourtswerereorganizedtobeginfunctioning.
Arellano and fellowFilipinos (from left:Manuel Araullo,Florentino Torres andGregorio Araneta)are sworn in asSupreme Court justices by Americanmilitary officials.
ThroughotherGeneralOrdersissuedbythegovernor,otherlawswereenforcedthatreplacedtheoldlegalcodesoftheSpanishgovernmentinthePhilippines.Manyoftheselawshadtobeenforcedwiththehelpofsoldiersandothermilitarypersonnel.Governmentoffices,especiallythoseinvolvingtradeandcommunicationsweretakenoverbythemilitary.
ThemilitarygovernorreportedlydirectlytothePresidentthroughtheSecretaryofWar.
Thoughlastingonlyforthreeyears,themilitarygovernmentpreparedforthecolonialgovernmentoftheAmericansintheyearstocome.
The Schurman Commission(First Philippine Commission)
Members of thecommission.From left: DeanWorcester,Charles Denby,Jacob Schurman,John MacArthur(secretary); Adm.George Dewey,Gen. Elwell Otis.
ItwasthetaskofthecommissiontoinvestigatethemattersconditionsinthePhilippinesandadvicethePresidentonwhattodoabouttheislands.ThegrouparrivedonMarch4,amonthafterthestartofthePhilippine-AmericanWar.
SchurmanlaterannouncedinaproclamationthattheaimoftheUSgovernmentwasto
“secure
thewell-being,theprosperityandthehappinessofthePhilippinepeopleandtheirelevationandadvancementtoapositionamongthecivilizedpeopleoftheworld.
Because of the war, however, the commission remained inManila where they held public hearings and met with Filipino
ilustrados 
many of whom expressed the desire that Americatake over the islands.
The commission ended its mission and returned to the U.S.where they issued a report to President McKinley on January31, 1900 with the following recommendations:
1)the withdrawal of military rule in the Philippines2)the establishment of a civil government with abicameral legislature3)the establishment of a system of free public education
This recommendations would form the basis for the formationof the civil government a year later.
 
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TheSchurmanCommissionmeetingwithAguinaldoemissariesconsistingof(fromleft)Capt.LorenzoZialcita,AlbertoBaretto,Gen.GregoriodelPilar,andGracioGonzaga
The Taft Commission(Second Philippine Commission)
Members of the TaftCommission. (Fromleft) DeanWorcester, HenryIde, William HowardTaft, BernardMoses, and LukeWright.Taft with Wright and IdeThe Philippine Commission becamethe colonial civil government of the USin the Philippines. Taft became the firstcivil governor-general of the islandsafter the establishment of the civilgovernment on 4 July 1901.In 1902, the US Congress passed theArmy Appropriations Act with theSpooner Amendment that gave the USPresident the power to govern theislands with the authority of theCongress and not as Commander-in-Chief of the US Armed Forces.This ended the military rule of theislands and established the civilgovernment under the control of the USCongress.
In his Instructions to the Second Philippine Commissionon April 7 1900, President McKinley conferred on themthe authority to exercise the legislative power ofgovernment which includes appointing officials, themaking of orders to raise revenue, appropriation andexpenditure of public funds, and establish aneducational system, an efficient civil service, organizecourts of justice, municipal as well as departmentalgovernments.It was on the basis of these instructions that the FirstPhilippine Commission began its work in administeringthe Philippine Islands.
The Church and The Americans
The Situation
JesuithistorianJohnSchumacherdescribedthePhilippineCatholicChurchduringtheearlyyearsoftheAmericanperiodas
“a
Churchin
disarray”
.TheAglipayanSchismwasongoingandthefriarswereleavingtheislands.TheheadoftheChurchinthePhilippines,ManilaArchbishopNozaledaleftforSpainandBishopMartinGarciaAlcocerofCebuwaslefttofacethenewAmericangovernmentwhowascarefullytreadingitswaytoasolutionwiththeChurchwithoutcompromisingitsprinciplesoftheseparationofChurchandState.
According to Taft: “The union of 
Church and State under theSpanish regime was so closethat the decision whether aparticular foundation was civil orreligious involves aconsideration of some of thenicest and puzzling points of
law “
By 1902, there was a decreasein the number of religiouspersonnel of all the orders in thePhilippines. Majority of thefriars had abandoned theirparishes. In that year, therewere only 380 friars in thePhilippines.Top:Franciscanfriars. Left:Archbishop ofManilaBernardinoNozaleda

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