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The Period of Suppressed Nationalism

The Period of Suppressed Nationalism

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Published by kbj_batch09
mr. torres
mr. torres

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: kbj_batch09 on Mar 10, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The Period of SuppressedNationalism
Early American Colonial Policiesand theFight for Philippine NationalismAmerican Rule and Philippine Independence
The establishment of American rule was a challengeto Filipino nationalism and independence
As the Americans settled in to rule the islands, theFilipinos continued their fight against U.S.sovereignty and the continuing oppression by themilitary
Agoncillo gives two challenges faced by thenationalists after 1898
a) whether it could endure the obstacles toindependenceb) if they could overcome the objectives ofindependenceInspiteof
Act No. 292 or the Sedition Law was passed onNovember 4, 1901. Its pertinent portions are:
Sec. 1: Every person, resident in the Philippine Islands, owingallegiance to the United States or the Government of the PhilippineIslands, who levies war against them, or adheres to their enemies,giving them aid and comfort within the Philippine Islands or elsewhere, isguilty of treason and, upon conviction shall suffer death or, at thediscretion of the Court, shall be imprisoned at hard labor for not lessthan five years and fined not less than ten thousand dollars.Sec. 8: Every person who shall utter seditious words or speeches, write,publish, or circulate, scurrilous libels against the Government of thePhilippine Islands or which tend to disturb or obstruct any lawful officerin executing his office, of which suggest or incite rebellious conspiraciesor riots or which tend to stir up the people against the lawful authoritiesor to disturb the peace of the community, the safety and order of theGovernment, or who shall knowingly conceal such evil practices, shallbe punished by a fine not exceeding thou thousand dollars, or byimprisonment not exceeding two years, or both in the discretion of theCourt.
The Sedition Law effectively suppressed severalaspects in society that the Filipinos may use fortheir expressions of independence andnationalism:a)The theater and other art expressionsb)Political partiesc)Publicationsd)Political movements
The Seditious Theater
The theater was aform ofentertainment formany Filipinos duringthe Spanish times.In the period ofsuppressednationalism, itbecame the meansto express the anti-American sentimentsof the nationalists.In 1902, theseditious theater wasborn.
In the seditious theater,playwrights spoke up onstage, disguising theiranti-Spanish and anti-American sentiments inthe costumes, mannersand scenography oftraditional theater.When they werediscovered by Americanauthorities, the cast andcrew, sometimes theaudience were arrested.
The staging of Severino Reyes’
Walang Sugat 
Using traditional stage methods, theactors and crew inserted bits ofsubversive stage business: costumeswould suddenly form the thePhilippine flag (the display of whichwas forbidden by law); theunscheduled singing of the NationalAnthem (also forbidden by law); thesurprise appearance on stage of anunderground hero, like GeneralArtemio Ricarte; or new stagebusiness, like the trampling of theAmerican flag, or, in the case of
Severino Reyes’
Walang Sugat 
(Unwounded), the replacement ofthe friar-villain by Uncle Sam.
Artemio Ricarte
The Seditious Plays and their Authors
1.Juan Abad -
Tanikalang Guinto 
(Golden Chain) is about Ligaya (light;the spirit of independence), daughter of Dalita (extreme poverty andsuffering; the Mother Country), who is forbidden to see Kaulayaw(sweetheart; Filipino hero) by her uncle Maimbot (greedy; the Americaninsular government). Ligaya receives a golden bracelet from Maimbotthat becomes a chain to bind her to his control.-first staged at the Teatro Libertad on July 7, 1902, andsubsequently in other theaters in Manila, Laguna and Cavite. On May10, 1903, provincial authorities shut down its Batangas performance andindicted the author for sedition. Abad was sentenced to two yearsimprisonment and a fine of $2000. The decision was later reversed bythe Supreme Court in 1906.-While Abad was out under bail, he wrote
Isang Punlo ng Kaaway 
(AnEnemy Bullet) which was performed at the Teatro Rizal in Malabon onMay 8, 1904. The show was stopped by authorities which resulted in
Abad’s second arrest.
2. Juan Matapang Cruz -
Hindi Aco Patay 
(I Am Not Dead) was presentedat the Teatro Nueva Luna in Malabon on the night of May 8, 1903.The play features the story of Karangalan (honor) who loves Tangulan(defender, patriot), and resists Macamcam (one who usurps power; theAmerican insular government). Tangulan is thought killed in a duel with
Macamcam, but he springs up and declares, “I am not dead!” The red
sun on a Katipunan flag rises behind the stage, representing freedomwon, and the loyal Filipinos take the villains and traitors captive.-A riot occurred when a drunken American soldier hurled an empty beerbottle at the Katipunan flag, then climbed the stage with some othersand tore the scenery apart. This led to the arrest of the theater
manager, the banning of the play, and the confiscation of “seditious”
props, among them Katipunan flags and revolutionary emblems. Ten ofthe actors were arrested a month later while Cruz was arrested twomonths later.-During the trial, Cruz denied he was the author of the play and evenpointed to his wife as the one who wrote the play. Nevertheless, Cruz
was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment, and apparently served them
in full.
3.Aurelio Tolentino
-he was a revolutionary longbefore he concentrated onplaywriting. He was a member ofthe Katipunan and later wrote forvarious nationalist newspapers.In August 1900 he headed a secretsociety called Junta de Amigos,
“with authority from Aguinaldo toform and organize guerrillas” He
became involved in variousrevolutionary activities during theAmerican period and was arrested anumber of times.In his lifetime, Tolentino sufferednine imprisonments.His most popular play was
Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas.
Itwas about attempts tosubjugate the Philippines inthe past (by the Chinese), inthe present (the Spanishofficials and friars) and thefuture (the Americans), andhow Inangbayan (MotherCountry) and her son Tagailog(Tagalog; the Filipino) winover them.This was played on May 14,1903 at the Teatro Libertad inManila.
At one point, the scriptcalled for the actor playingTagailog (the Tagalogprovinces) to haul down theAmerican flag and totrample on it as a sign ofvictory. Since the actor wasreluctant to do this in fullview of the Americans inthe audience, Tolentinoreportedly took over therole himself. This angeredthe Americans in theaudience, who then riotedAs a result, Tolentino andseveral other members ofthe company were arrested

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