Types and Stages in Education
Education system has come a long way since its origin. Present day education ismuch more structured in comparison to yesteryears, when there was no such concept of a formaleducation system. Education can be defined as the knowledge of putting one’s potential intomaximum use. It helps a person to make the right decision in the sphere of life.
Types of education:
1. Formal education:
Formal education can be defined as a hierarchically structured andchronologically graded education system. It comprises of primary education, higher educationand full time professional training. This education system is referred to as mainstream ortraditional education.
2. Adult education:
As the name suggests, adult education refers to a practice of educatingadults. There are different forms of adult education, namely, formal class based learning, e-learning and self-directed learning. There are also some career specific courses that adults canlearn. Some of the common career specific courses are real estate license, medical billing,bookkeeping, etc. Most of these courses are available online.
3. Alternative education:
This type of education is actually an alternative approach totraditional or mainstream education. This educational alternative is often rooted in severalphilosophies that are quite different from that of mainstream education.
4. Special education:
There are some students who require special learning needs, which areaddressed through special education. According to IDEA (Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act), a child is first identified as one who requires special education support; then, thechild is evaluated and on its basis, his/her eligibility is determined. Finally, an IndividualizedEducation Program (IEP) is written and the plan is carried out effectively.
Four Stages in formal or mainstream education:
There are primarily 4 stages in a formal or mainstream education. The stages are given below.
1. Nursery education:
Often referred to as preschool education, nursery education is the basicstage of formal teaching. It comprises of nursery school and kindergarten, which serves as atransition from home to the beginning of formal education. With the help of social interactionand creative play, children (between 3-5 years of age) are taught how to develop basic skills.
2. Primary education:
Elementary or primary education refers to a first few years of structured,formal education. Usually, it consists of 6-8 years of schooling that usually starts from the age of 5 or 6. However, the basic age of primary education slightly varies from one country to another.Most of the countries have made it compulsory for students to receive primary education. Apartfrom basic literacy, the main aim of primary education is to establish foundations in a variety of subjects, such as, mathematics, science and social sciences.