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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

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Published by CCNAResources
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

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Published by: CCNAResources on Mar 11, 2010
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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) 
 Integrated Services Digital Network, a circuit-switching network used for voice, data andvideo transfer over existing copper telephone lines. ISDN is a bit similar to the normaltelephone system but it is faster and needs less time to setup a call. ISDN runs on the bottomthree layers of the OSI reference model.There are several types of ISDN channels, the two main being the 64 Kilobits per second B-channel for data, and the D-channel for control information. Two B-channels + one D-channelmake up ISDN BRI (Basic-Rate Interface), some Remote Access servers support a featurecalled multilink allowing both B-channels to be combined in a single virtual link of 128 Kbps.In SOHO networks often 1 B-channel is used for data (an internet connection for example)and 1 B-channel is used for voice (connected to a digital telephone for example). The US andJapanese version of ISDN PRI (Primary-Rate Interface) is made up of 23 B-channels (totalrate of 1.472 Mbps) and 1 D-channel. The European and Australian version supports 30 B-channels (total rate of 1.984 Mbps) and 1 D-channel.A common implementation of these two types of ISDN is a remote access solution with ISDNPRI at the corporate network supporting 23 dial-in connections for employees with ISDN BRIat home. Also an ISDN BRI connection is often implemented as a backup line betweenrouters in WANs such as in a Frame Relay network as shown in the following image:Besides this dial-up ISDN configuration for backup and other Dial on Demand Routing(DDR) configurations another service offered are ISDN BRI leased-line connections, thedifference is they always use both data channels for the connection to the ISDN service provider and ISDN BRI leased-lines are always active.
ISDN Function groups
 The ISDN function groups represent the devices in an ISDN environment such as terminals,terminal adapters, network-termination devices and line-termination equipment. Thefollowing table lists these devices:
(Terminal Equipment 1) Specialized ISDN terminals that understand the ISDNstandards, for example an ISDN telephone.
(Terminal Equipment 2) Non-ISDN Terminals that need a Terminal Adapter (TA) toconnect to an ISDN network, for example a regular telephone.
(Terminal Adapter) Converts some other form of signaling to ISDN to allow non-ISDNdevices (TE2) to work the 2-wire ISDN network.
(Network Termination 1) Connects TE1 or TA devices to the ISDN network. In the US,
the NT1 is located at the customer's premises and owned by the customer. In other parts of theworld the NT1 is usually provided by the carrier (typically a telephone company).
(Network Termination 2) The NT2 is a physical device that interfaces the NT1 todifferent types of devices (TE1 or TA). In most cases it is a PBX at the customer's premises.Take for example an apartment building or campus, if have a demand for ISDN lines fromyour renters (customers) you can order an ISDN PRI and connect it to your local PBX. Youcan then extend the ISDN service to any place in the building(s).The following image shows the various function groups and reference points.The following image illustrate some real-life situations. As you can see the NT2 is left out,most NT1 adapters today have a U interface on one side and an s/t on the other so you simply plug your TE1 or TA into the NT1 and you're good to go.The following image shows two type of routers, the upper is usually used in North Americawhere the demarcation point between the customer premises and the carrier's network is the Ureference point, this router is actually a TE1 with a built-in NT1 and is also known as a 'Urouter'. The other router is used in most other parts of the world where the NT1 is provided bythe telco, this router is actually a TE2 with a built-in TA and is also known as a 'S/T router'.
ISDN Reference points
 ISDN specifies four reference points that define the logical interfaces/connections betweenfunction groups (also represented in the mage below):
defines the reference point between non-ISDN equipment (TE2) and a TA.
defines the reference point between and an NT2.
defines the reference point between NT1 and NT2 devices.
defines the reference point between NT1 devices and line-termination equipment in acarrier network. Relevant in North America where the NT1 function isn’t provided by thecarrier network.
CCNA4.comCCNA4.comISDN protocols
 ISDN protocols are defined in ITU protocols that operates on the Physical, Data Link and Network layer of the OSI model. There are several series of protocols dealing with differentissues:
series defines the use of ISDN on the existing telephone network.
series deals with concepts, aspects, and services.
series covers switching and signaling. The LAPD protocol is formally specified in ITU-TQ.920 and ITU-T Q.921. LAPD is the signaling protocol used on the D-channel in ISDN BRIand PRI.
Configure ISDN BRI and Legacy DDR 
 Configuring ISDN may seem to be complex but is rather simple in basic situations. Thediagram below shows a typical setup connecting two remote offices using an ISDN dial-upconfiguration.First the ISDN switch type must be configured and should match the carrier's equipment. Youcan use the
isdn switch-type
command in both global config mode (required) and interfaceconfiguration mode (optional if different per interface). For example:
 Router(config)#isdn switch-type basic-dms100
 The correct switch type should be supplied by the carrier. Click here for a table at Cisco.comlisting the ISDN BRI service provider switch types. If you change the switch-type, you mustreload the router for the new switch type to take effect.Although ISDN supports several upper-layer protocols such as IP, IPX and Appletalk,typically IP is used and this is also the one relevant to the CCNA exam. Configuring an IPaddress on an ISDN BRI interface is done in the same way as configuring an IP address for any other interface such as Ethernet or Serial:
 Router(config)#interface bri 0
(to enter interface config mode)
 Router(config-if)#ip address
 Some service providers require the use of SPIDs for your ISDN device to be able to place or receive calls. A SPID is usually the telephone number of the channel with some optionalnumbers which can be used to identity the service(s) the customer is subscribed to. The SPIDnumbering scheme depends on the service provider and the switch-type. For example, theDMS-100 switch type requires a SPID for each B channel.
 Router(config-if)#isdn spid1 5055551234 0111
(B1 channel)
 Router(config-if)#isdn spid2 5055551235 0111
(B2 channel)The default encapsulation type for each B-channel is HDLC, however PPP encapsulation isrecommended over HDLC in order to allow the use of CHAP authentication. Theencapsulation type can be configured using the following command in interface configurationmode:
 Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
  Now to configure the actual part that maps the link to the network layer using the dialer map

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