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Chapter 24 Introduction to Wireless LAN

Chapter 24 Introduction to Wireless LAN

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Published by Vinay Singh

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Published by: Vinay Singh on Mar 11, 2010
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Chapter 24 Introduction to Wireless LAN
What is a wireless LAN?
Wireless LAN stands for Wireless Local Area Network. It is a flexible datacommunications system implemented to extend or substitute for, a wired LAN. Radiofrequency (RF) technology is used by a wireless LAN to transmit and receive data over the air, minimizing the need for wired connections. A WLAN enables data connectivityand user mobility.
What are some Wireless LAN Applications?
A Wireless LAN is frequently used to augment and enhance a wired LAN network rather than as a replacement.
Applications made possible through the use of wireless LAN technology include:
Hospital applications using wireless LAN capable hand-held or notebook computersdeliver patient information instantly and securely to doctors and nurses.Small workgroups and audit teams can increase productivity due to quick network setup.Students, professors, and staff at universities, corporate training centers, and other schools can access the Internet, the college catalog, and actual course content. Network managers can use wireless LANs to reduce the overhead caused by moves,extensions to networks, and other changes.Installing networked computers in older buildings becomes easier by using wireless LANas a cost-effective network infrastructure solution.Pre-configured wireless LAN setups need no local computer support and make tradeshow and branch office setups simple.Wireless LAN in warehouses can be used to retrieve and updated information oncentralized databases, thereby increasing productivity. Network managers, senior executives, and line managers can make quicker decisions because they have real-time information at their fingertips.
INTRODUCTION TO WIRELESS LAN
WLAN is a flexible data communication system, which can be used for applications inwhich mobility is necessary or desirable. Using electromagnetic waves, WLANs transmit and receivedata over the air without relying on physical connection. Current WLAN technology is capable of reaching a data rate of 11Mbps. Overall, WLAN is a promising technology for the futurecommunication market.Information Technology for B.Sc. IT Semester V Page 111
 
Chapter 24 Introduction to Wireless LAN
Wireless Local Area Networks
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) was designed to provide a dedicated line for users who need Internet access via a telephone line or a cable TV connection.
A PPP connection goes through these phases: idle, establishing, authenticating(optional), networking, and terminating.
At the data link layer, PPP employs a version of HDLC.
The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing, maintaining,configuring, and terminating links.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge HandshakeAuthentication Protocol (CHAP) are two protocols used for authentication in PPP.
PAP is a two-step process. The user sends authentication identification and a password. The system determines the validity of the information sent.
CHAP is a three-step process. The system sends a value to the user. The user manipulates the value and sends its result. The system verifies the result.
 Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a set of protocols to allow the encapsulationof data coming from network layer protocols; each set is specific for a network layer protocol that requires the services of PPP.
Internetwork Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP), an NCP protocol, establishes andterminates a network layer connection for IP packets.
The IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless LANs defines two services: basic serviceset (BSS) and extended service set (ESS). An ESS consists of two or more BSSs;each BSS must have an access point (AP).
The physical layer methods used by wireless LANs include frequency-hoppingspread spectrum (FHSS), direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), orthogonalfrequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), and high-rate direct sequence spreadspectrum (HR-DSSS).
FHSS is a signal generation method in which repeated sequences of carrier frequencies are used for protection against hackers.
One bit is replaced by a chip code in DSSS.
OFDM specifies that one source must use all the channels of the bandwidth.
HR-DSSS is DSSS with an encoding method called complementary code keying(CCK).
The wireless LAN access method is CSMA/CA.
The network allocation vector (NAV) is a timer for collision avoidance.
The MAC layer frame has nine fields. The addressing mechanism can include upto four addresses.
Wireless LANs use management frames, control frames, and data frames.
Bluetooth is a wireless LAN technology that connects devices (called gadgets) ina small area.
A Bluetooth network is called a piconet. Multiple piconets form a network calleda scatternet.Information Technology for B.Sc. IT Semester V Page 112

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