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Chapter 2 Network Protocols

Chapter 2 Network Protocols

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Published by Vinaykumar Singh

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Published by: Vinaykumar Singh on Mar 11, 2010
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Chapter 2 Network Protocols
Chapter 2 Network ProtocolsPoint to Point Access PPP
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) was designed to provide a dedicated line for users who need Internet access via a telephone line or a cable TV connection.
A PPP connection goes through these phases: idle, establishing, authenticating(optional), networking, and terminating.
At the data link layer, PPP employs a version of HDLC.
The Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible for establishing, maintaining,configuring, and terminating links.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge HandshakeAuthentication Protocol (CHAP) are two protocols used for authentication in PPP.
PAP is a two-step process. The user sends authentication identification and a password. The system determines the validity of the information sent.
CHAP is a three-step process. The system sends a value to the user. The user manipulates the value and sends its result. The system verifies the result.
 Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a set of protocols to allow the encapsulationof data coming from network layer protocols; each set is specific for a network layer protocol that requires the services of PPP.
Internetwork Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP), an NCP protocol, establishes andterminates a network layer connection for IP packets.
Multiple Accesses
Medium access methods can be categorized as random, controlled, or channelized.
In the carrier sense multiple-access (CSMA) method, a station must listen to themedium prior to sending data onto the line.
A persistence strategy defines the procedure to follow when a station senses anoccupied medium.
Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is CSMA witha postcollision procedure.
Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is CSMAwith procedures that avoid a collision.
Reservation, polling, and token passing are controlled-access methods.
In the reservation access method, a station reserves a slot for data by setting itsflag in a reservation frame.
In the polling access method, a primary station controls transmissions to and fromsecondary stations.
In the token-passing access method, a station that has control of a frame called atoken can send data.Information Technology for B.Sc. IT Semester V Page 10
 
Chapter 2 Network Protocols
Channelization is a multiple-access method in which the available bandwidth of alink is shared in time, frequency, or through code, between stations on a network.
FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA are channelization methods.
In FDMA, the bandwith is divided into bands; each band is reserved fro the use of a specific station.
In TDMA, the bandwidth is not divided into bands; instead the bandwidth istimeshared.
In CDMA, the bandwidth is not divided into bands, yet data from all inputs aretransmitted simultaneously.
CDMA is based on coding theory and uses sequences of numbers called chips.The sequences are generated using Walsh tables.
Host to Host DeliveryInternetworking Addressing and Routing
There are two popular approaches to packet switching: the datagram approach andthe virtual circuit approach.
In the datagram approach, each packet is treated independently of all other  packets.
At the network layer, a global addressing system that uniquely identifies everyhost and router is necessary for delivery of a packet from network to network.
The Internet address (or IP address) is 32 bits (for IPv4) that uniquely anduniversally defines a host or router on the internet.
The portion of the IP address that identifies the network is called the netid.
The portion of the IP address that identifies the host or router on the network iscalled the hostid.
There are five classes of IP addresses. Classes A, B, and C differ in the number of hosts allowed per network. Class D is for multicasting, and class E is reserved.
The class of a network is easily determined by examination of the first byte.
Unicast communication is one source sending a packet to one destination.
Multicast communication is one source sending a packet to multiple destinations.
Sub-netting divides one large network into several smaller ones.
Sub-netting adds an intermediate level of hierarchy in IP addressing.
Default masking is a process that extracts the network address from an IP address.
Subnet masking is a process that extracts the sub-network address from an IPaddress
Super-netting combines several networks into one large one.
In classless addressing, there are variable-length blocks that belong to no class.The entire address space is divided into blocks based on organization needs.
The first address and the mask in classless addressing can define the whole block.
A mask can be expressed in slash notation which is a slash followed by thenumber of 1s in the mask.Information Technology for B.Sc. IT Semester V Page 11
 
Chapter 2 Network Protocols
Every computer attached to the Internet must know its IP address, the IP addressof a router, the IP address of a name server, and its subnet mask (if it is part of asubnet).
DHCP is a dynamic configuration protocol with two databases.
The DHCP server issues a lease for an IP address to a client for a specific periodof time.
 Network address translation (NAT) allows a private network to use a set of  private addresses for internal communication and a set of global Internetaddresses for external communication.
 NAT uses translation tables to route messages.
The IP protocol is a connectionless protocol. Every packet is independent and hasno relationship to any other packet.
Every host or router has a routing table to route IP packets.
In next-hop routing, instead of a complete list of the stops the packet must make,only the address of the next hop is listed in the routing table.
In network-specific routing, all hosts on a network share one entry in the routingtable.
In host-specific routing, the full IP address of a host is given in the routing table.
In default routing, a router is assigned to receive all packets with no match in therouting table.
A static routing table's entries are updated manually by an administrator.
Classless addressing requires hierarchial and geographic routing to preventimmense routing tables. There are two popular approaches to packet switching:the datagram approach and the virtual circuit approach.
In the datagram approach, each packet is treated independently of all other  packets.
At the network layer, a global addressing system that uniquely identifies everyhost and router is necessary for delivery of a packet from network to network.
The Internet address (or IP address) is 32 bits (for IPv4) that uniquely anduniversally defines a host or router on the internet.
The portion of the IP address that identifies the network is called the netid.
The portion of the I address that identifies the host or router on the network iscalled the hostid.
There are five classes of IP addresses. Classes A, B, and C differ in the number of hosts allowed per network. Class D is for multicasting, and class E is reserved.
The class of a network is easily determined by examination of the first byte.
Unicast communication is one source sending a packet to one destination.
Multicast communication is one source sending a packet to multiple destinations.
Sub-netting divides one large network into several smaller ones.
Sub-netting adds an intermediate level of hierarchy in IP addressing.
Default masking is a process that extracts the network address from an IP address.
Subnet masking is a process that extracts the sub-network address from an IPaddressInformation Technology for B.Sc. IT Semester V Page 12

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