Several terms are used along with the idea of solubility to help classify solutes that will and will notform solutions.
(referring to a solid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
when a solid solute will mix, dissociate, andform a solution (all the solid particles disappear)
- when a solid solute will NOT mix, and layersform (all the solid particles fall to the bottom of thecontainer unchanged)
(referring to a liquid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
when a liquid solute will mix, dissociate, and form a solution
- when a liquid solute will NOT mix, and layers form
D.Factors that affect the degree of solubility:
1. The nature of the solute and solvent.
“like dissolves like”
2. Temperature- solids and liquids
increase temperature,increase solubilitygas solutes
increase temperature, decrease solubility3. Pressure-solids and liquids
no effectgas solutes
increase pressure, increase solubilitydecrease pressure, decrease solubility Just as there are factors that will determine how much solute can combine with a solvent,factors also exist that determine how fast a solute can dissolve in a solvent.
Factors affecting the rate of solution:
rate of solution-
rate at which the solute dissolves in the solvent
Size of particles (surface area) - smaller solute particles dissolve faster because thesolvent has a larger surface area to attack
Stirring - particles of the solute and solvent come in contact with one another moreoften, and cause the solute to dissolve faster
Temperature - solids and liquids
increase temp., dissolves fastergas solutes
increase temp., dissolves slower
Amount of solute already in solution - solute will dissolve faster if there are fewparticles dissolved in the solvent, as the amount of solute in the solution increases thetime it takes the solute to dissolve will increase
Heats of Solution:
Releases heat (gets warm)Ex. NaOH + water
Absorbs heat (cools)Ex. ammonium nitrate
– maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent(specified temperature & pressure)
– solution contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a givenamount of solvent (specific temp. & press.) maximum solute dissolved (additionalfalls to bottom)
– contains less than saturated solution (can dissolve more solute)
– contains more dissolved solute than a saturatedsolution at the same temperature.
Ex. Sugar in Water