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Solubility&Soln Notes

Solubility&Soln Notes

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Solutions and Solubility Notes
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures that are made up of very small particles that havebeen dissolved into another substance. Solutions can be made from many differentsubstances in many different physical states, but all solutions share some commonproperties.
A.
Properties of solutions :
1. Solutions are
homogeneous
mixtures2. The dissolved particles in a solution will not come out of the solution, no matterthe length of timethe solution is allowed to stand, assuming the solution is covered.3. Solutions are clear and transparent because the dissolved particles are too smallto be seen.4. Solutions cannot be separated by filtering because the dissolved particles aresmaller than theholes in the filter.5. Solutions are considered to be in one phase even though they may be made of solute/solvent pairsin different phases.
B.
Components of Solutions
Solvent:
dissolving medium
Solute
: the substance being dissolvedSolutions can be created using solutes and solvents of any physical state of matter. Mostoften, the results solutions remains in the same state as the solvent used to create it.
State of SolutionState of SolventState of SoluteExample
gasgasgasAirgasgasliquidwater vapor in air (humidity)gasGassolidThe odor of a solid --molecules of that solid beingdissolved in the airliquidliquidgasOxygen in water, soda pop(CO
2
in water)liquidliquidliquidAlcohol in waterliquidliquid solidSalt in watersolidsolidgasHydrogen in palladiumsolidsolidliquidMercury in silver (amalgam)solidsolidsolidSilver in gold (alloy)Each solution has its own unique solubility. The amount of solute that will dissolve into aparticular solvent can vary under certain conditions.
C.
Solubility Terms
 The solubility of a solution is a measure of how much of the solute can be dissolved into thesolvent. The solution reaches a point called the
saturation point 
when no more solute will beaccepted by the solvent. Any further addition of solute will result in solid solute mixed in with thesaturated solution. (In this way, solubility can be thought of as a recipe for the creation of asaturated solution). Each solvent and solute pair has a characteristic solubility at a giventemperature. Usually as you increase the temperature, an increased amount of solute will be ableto dissolve.
solubility-
the measured amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific amount of solvent at acertain temperature and/or pressure.
 
For the easiest view of solubility, think of examples of a solid solute dissolving into a liquid solvent,keeping in mind that other materials do not work in the same fashion.Solubility of salts (ionic compounds) depends upon the type of ions in the salt, while solubility of molecules depends upon the idea of “
like dissolves like
”. There is a very great range of solubility of salts in water. Even the most insoluble, such as silver chloride, have a very small but detectablesolubility.
 
Several terms are used along with the idea of solubility to help classify solutes that will and will notform solutions.
(referring to a solid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
soluble-
when a solid solute will mix, dissociate, andform a solution (all the solid particles disappear)
 
insoluble
- when a solid solute will NOT mix, and layersform (all the solid particles fall to the bottom of thecontainer unchanged)
(referring to a liquid solute mixing with a liquid solvent):
miscible-
when a liquid solute will mix, dissociate, and form a solution
immiscible
- when a liquid solute will NOT mix, and layers form
D.Factors that affect the degree of solubility:
1. The nature of the solute and solvent.
“like dissolves like”
2. Temperature- solids and liquids
increase temperature,increase solubilitygas solutes
increase temperature, decrease solubility3. Pressure-solids and liquids
no effectgas solutes
increase pressure, increase solubilitydecrease pressure, decrease solubility Just as there are factors that will determine how much solute can combine with a solvent,factors also exist that determine how fast a solute can dissolve in a solvent.
E.
 
Factors affecting the rate of solution:
rate of solution-
rate at which the solute dissolves in the solvent
1.
Size of particles (surface area) - smaller solute particles dissolve faster because thesolvent has a larger surface area to attack
2.
Stirring - particles of the solute and solvent come in contact with one another moreoften, and cause the solute to dissolve faster
3.
 Temperature - solids and liquids
increase temp., dissolves fastergas solutes
increase temp., dissolves slower
4.
Amount of solute already in solution - solute will dissolve faster if there are fewparticles dissolved in the solvent, as the amount of solute in the solution increases thetime it takes the solute to dissolve will increase
F.
Heats of Solution:
a.
Exothermic
Releases heat (gets warm)Ex. NaOH + water
 b.
Endothermic
Absorbs heat (cools)Ex. ammonium nitrate
G.
Solubility
– maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent(specified temperature & pressure)
a.
Saturated
– solution contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a givenamount of solvent (specific temp. & press.) maximum solute dissolved (additionalfalls to bottom)
 b.
Unsaturated
– contains less than saturated solution (can dissolve more solute)
c.
Supersaturated Solution
– contains more dissolved solute than a saturatedsolution at the same temperature.
Ex. Sugar in Water

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