The present work investigates some design aspects of a twinjet aircraft featuring engines mountedon pylons below the wing (
). The main goal of the present work is to evaluate the impact of thecruise Mach number of a commercial transport aircraft on its wing structural weight. A spin off of thisstudy could be some guidance for the choice of the more suited cruise Mach number of new aircraft in thisclass. Ten wings were previously designed with a low-fidelity multi-disciplinary iterative algorithm,called
, for cruising Mach number ranging from 0.75 to 0.90. Afterwards, a knowledge-BasedEngineering (KBE) framework performed a pre-design of the wing structure, also providing a moreaccurate calculated their structural weight. According to ASIEDU & GU (1998), KAPLAN & COOPER 1998 and RAGATZ et al 1997, from 75% to 85% of the total cost of a product, along all its lifecycle, isdetermined in the initial design periods of training. KBE allows costs, risks and time-to-market reductions.By employing a KBE application in this work, wing structural designs of a commercial transport aircraftcould then be performed with reasonable detailing.
Fig. 1 – Typical configuration for the aircraft under study.
Some methodologies for the estimation of structural weight of wings are available
, amongstthem the methodology developed by Cessna - applied for small airplanes with speeds below 200 kts (103m/s) – the one developed by USAF - used for aircraft with speeds below 300 kts (154,4 m/s) -, and the onedeveloped by Torenbeek
- indicated for aircraft with MTOW below 12,500 lb (5,670 kg). For commercial transport aircraft two methodologies apply mainly: GD method and as well as the Torenbeek one. The first method is applied for Mach number in the range 0.40-0.80, maximum thickness ratio
ranging from 0.08 to 0.15 and aspect ratio varying from 4 to 12; the second method is more suited for airplanes above 12,500 lb (5,670 kg). Both the methods take into account the weight of high-lift devicesand ailerons. For spoilers and air brakes two percent to the overall structural weight must be added.According the Torenbeek, the basic requirements for the wing design is associated with performance and operational aspects, flying characteristics and handling, structural design, andconsiderations of general layout design. For high-speed aircraft, the structural wing design may beextremely complex, due to aeroelastic effects - for example, various forms of flutter or aileron reversalmay occur; wing twist caused by bending of a sweptback wing may cause reduced longitudinal stability. Amethodology to calculate the wing structural weight, a relation between the maximum thickness ratio andthe divergent Mach number, which had been used in the present study, is expressed by Torenbeek
.Some methodologies for aerodynamic calculations and structural wing weight estimation of a transportaircraft are easily found in the literature. Unfortunately, during this research, no study that considered acombination between wing structural weight and aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft was found. Theexception was the Kyser A method
whose heading gives the idea of that the author, deals with thiscombination for the wing project. However, the Kyser A method
was not available.
The structure of the present work can be seen in
The main objective of the study carriedout here, as previously mentioned, is to map the wing structural weight evolution with the cruise Machnumber of a commercial transport aircraft. The three first steps are defined conditions, which start the pre-design of the aircraft’s wing. The box # 1 describes the requirements for the configuration, which are: