Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
29Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
WING STRUCTURAL WEIGHT EVOLUTION WITH THE CRUISE MACH NUMBER OF A COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

WING STRUCTURAL WEIGHT EVOLUTION WITH THE CRUISE MACH NUMBER OF A COMMERCIAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

Ratings: (0)|Views: 860 |Likes:
Published by Brian Xistos
This AIAA paper reports a detailed analysis of the impact of the cruise speed of a commercial
twinjet transport aircraft on its wing structural weight. The results will provide designers some guidelines
for conceptual studies, when a cruise speed must be then specified. Some assumptions were made in order
to conduct the proposed analysis: the fuel shall be stored in the wings only; the same fuselage was
considered for all configurations, regardless of their cruise speed; and a maximum range of 3,695 nm
(6,843 km). An algorithm named Asa Turbo was developed for the estimation of the initial wing
configuration. By fulfilling design requirements and employing a performance calculation code, the
procedure is able to calculate the corresponding lift coefficient and wing geometry parameters such as
sweep angle, area, and airfoil maximum thickness, additionally providing an initial estimation for the wing
structural weight according to the Torenbeek’s method. In order to better calculate the wing structural
weight, a framework for wing structure preliminary design was employed. A code developed as PDWSW,
which stands for Pre-Design Wing Structural Weight, was conceived to satisfy structural constraints as
well as design requirements, based on load envelops and stress analyses under a Knowledge Based
Engineering (KBE) environment. PDWSW outputs a minimum-weight structural configuration for a given
wing planform. In order to start the weight estimation procedure, the wing conceptual-design Asa Turbo
generated ten wing geometries for different cruise Mach numbers, ranging from Mach 0.75 to 0.90. All
these wings were then modeled with CATIA® and their structural design was considerably refined with
the PDWSW framework. In order to utilize PDWSW, the user must define the position of the spars, ribs,
and stringers and provide all preliminary dimensions of wings structure elements to obtain the minimum
weight, within the required boundary safety. The numerical procedure implemented obtains the optimal
number of ribs per wing box (main and trailing), the optimal number of stringers per rib bay, and optimal
sizing of all structural components (skin, spars, ribs and stringers). This procedure guarantees that
acceptable margins of safety and functionality requirements are fulfilled. The automation of the process is
important in this particular application considering the enormous amount of data to be handled in a short
period of time.
This AIAA paper reports a detailed analysis of the impact of the cruise speed of a commercial
twinjet transport aircraft on its wing structural weight. The results will provide designers some guidelines
for conceptual studies, when a cruise speed must be then specified. Some assumptions were made in order
to conduct the proposed analysis: the fuel shall be stored in the wings only; the same fuselage was
considered for all configurations, regardless of their cruise speed; and a maximum range of 3,695 nm
(6,843 km). An algorithm named Asa Turbo was developed for the estimation of the initial wing
configuration. By fulfilling design requirements and employing a performance calculation code, the
procedure is able to calculate the corresponding lift coefficient and wing geometry parameters such as
sweep angle, area, and airfoil maximum thickness, additionally providing an initial estimation for the wing
structural weight according to the Torenbeek’s method. In order to better calculate the wing structural
weight, a framework for wing structure preliminary design was employed. A code developed as PDWSW,
which stands for Pre-Design Wing Structural Weight, was conceived to satisfy structural constraints as
well as design requirements, based on load envelops and stress analyses under a Knowledge Based
Engineering (KBE) environment. PDWSW outputs a minimum-weight structural configuration for a given
wing planform. In order to start the weight estimation procedure, the wing conceptual-design Asa Turbo
generated ten wing geometries for different cruise Mach numbers, ranging from Mach 0.75 to 0.90. All
these wings were then modeled with CATIA® and their structural design was considerably refined with
the PDWSW framework. In order to utilize PDWSW, the user must define the position of the spars, ribs,
and stringers and provide all preliminary dimensions of wings structure elements to obtain the minimum
weight, within the required boundary safety. The numerical procedure implemented obtains the optimal
number of ribs per wing box (main and trailing), the optimal number of stringers per rib bay, and optimal
sizing of all structural components (skin, spars, ribs and stringers). This procedure guarantees that
acceptable margins of safety and functionality requirements are fulfilled. The automation of the process is
important in this particular application considering the enormous amount of data to be handled in a short
period of time.

More info:

Published by: Brian Xistos on Mar 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial No-derivs

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/05/2012

pdf

 
AIAA 2004-5192
1
WING STRUCTURAL WEIGHT EVOLUTION WITHTHE CRUISE MACH NUMBER OF A COMMERCIALTRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
 
André Luiz Delgado Regis
*
and Bento Silva de Mattos
+
 Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica
 
SA
– Embraer 
 Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima, 217012227-901 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, BrazilRoberto da Mota Girardi
#
 Aeronautical Institute of Technology
(ITA), São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract
The present work performs a detailed analysis of the impact of the cruise speed of a commercialtwinjet transport aircraft on its wing structural weight. The results will provide designers some guidelinesfor conceptual studies, when a cruise speed must be then specified. Some assumptions were made in order to conduct the proposed analysis: the fuel shall be stored in the wings only; the same fuselage wasconsidered for all configurations, regardless of their cruise speed; and a maximum range of 3,695 nm(6,843 km). An algorithm named
 Asa Turbo
was developed for the estimation of the initial wingconfiguration. By fulfilling design requirements and employing a performance calculation code, the procedure is able to calculate the corresponding lift coefficient and wing geometry parameters such assweep angle, area, and airfoil maximum thickness, additionally providing an initial estimation for the wingstructural weight according to the Torenbeek’s method. In order to better calculate the wing structuralweight, a framework for wing structure preliminary design was employed. A code developed as PDWSW,which stands for Pre-Design Wing Structural Weight, was conceived to satisfy structural constraints aswell as design requirements, based on load envelops and stress analyses under a Knowledge BasedEngineering (KBE) environment. PDWSW outputs a minimum-weight structural configuration for a givenwing planform. In order to start the weight estimation procedure, the wing conceptual-design
 Asa Turbo
 generated ten wing geometries for different cruise Mach numbers, ranging from Mach 0.75 to 0.90. Allthese wings were then modeled with CATIA
®
and their structural design was considerably refined withthe PDWSW framework. In order to utilize PDWSW, the user must define the position of the spars, ribs,and stringers and provide all preliminary dimensions of wings structure elements to obtain the minimumweight, within the required boundary safety. The numerical procedure implemented obtains the optimalnumber of ribs per wing box (main and trailing), the optimal number of stringers per rib bay, and optimalsizing of all structural components (skin, spars, ribs and stringers). This procedure guarantees thatacceptable margins of safety and functionality requirements are fulfilled. The automation of the process isimportant in this particular application considering the enormous amount of data to be handled in a short period of time.
*
Loads Engineer, Embraer,andre.regis@embraer.com.br  
+
Dr.-Ing. Technological Development, Embraer  bmattos@embraer.com.br  
#
Prof.-Dr. Aerodynamics, ITAgirardi@aer.ita.br  
 
AIAA 2004-5192
2
Introduction
The present work investigates some design aspects of a twinjet aircraft featuring engines mountedon pylons below the wing (
Fig. 1
). The main goal of the present work is to evaluate the impact of thecruise Mach number of a commercial transport aircraft on its wing structural weight. A spin off of thisstudy could be some guidance for the choice of the more suited cruise Mach number of new aircraft in thisclass. Ten wings were previously designed with a low-fidelity multi-disciplinary iterative algorithm,called
 Asa Turbo
, for cruising Mach number ranging from 0.75 to 0.90. Afterwards, a knowledge-BasedEngineering (KBE) framework performed a pre-design of the wing structure, also providing a moreaccurate calculated their structural weight. According to ASIEDU & GU (1998), KAPLAN & COOPER 1998 and RAGATZ et al 1997, from 75% to 85% of the total cost of a product, along all its lifecycle, isdetermined in the initial design periods of training. KBE allows costs, risks and time-to-market reductions.By employing a KBE application in this work, wing structural designs of a commercial transport aircraftcould then be performed with reasonable detailing.
Fig. 1 – Typical configuration for the aircraft under study.
Some methodologies for the estimation of structural weight of wings are available
5-7
, amongstthem the methodology developed by Cessna - applied for small airplanes with speeds below 200 kts (103m/s) – the one developed by USAF - used for aircraft with speeds below 300 kts (154,4 m/s) -, and the onedeveloped by Torenbeek 
10,11
- indicated for aircraft with MTOW below 12,500 lb (5,670 kg). For commercial transport aircraft two methodologies apply mainly: GD method and as well as the Torenbeek one. The first method is applied for Mach number in the range 0.40-0.80, maximum thickness ratio
(t/c)
m
 ranging from 0.08 to 0.15 and aspect ratio varying from 4 to 12; the second method is more suited for airplanes above 12,500 lb (5,670 kg). Both the methods take into account the weight of high-lift devicesand ailerons. For spoilers and air brakes two percent to the overall structural weight must be added.According the Torenbeek, the basic requirements for the wing design is associated with performance and operational aspects, flying characteristics and handling, structural design, andconsiderations of general layout design. For high-speed aircraft, the structural wing design may beextremely complex, due to aeroelastic effects - for example, various forms of flutter or aileron reversalmay occur; wing twist caused by bending of a sweptback wing may cause reduced longitudinal stability. Amethodology to calculate the wing structural weight, a relation between the maximum thickness ratio andthe divergent Mach number, which had been used in the present study, is expressed by Torenbeek 
10,11
.Some methodologies for aerodynamic calculations and structural wing weight estimation of a transportaircraft are easily found in the literature. Unfortunately, during this research, no study that considered acombination between wing structural weight and aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft was found. Theexception was the Kyser A method
1
whose heading gives the idea of that the author, deals with thiscombination for the wing project. However, the Kyser A method
1
was not available.
Methodology
The structure of the present work can be seen in
Fig. 2.
The main objective of the study carriedout here, as previously mentioned, is to map the wing structural weight evolution with the cruise Machnumber of a commercial transport aircraft. The three first steps are defined conditions, which start the pre-design of the aircraft’s wing. The box # 1 describes the requirements for the configuration, which are:
 
AIAA 2004-5192
3
·
 
Takeoff field length cannot exceed 6,000 ft (1,828 m),
·
 
Cruising altitude – 41,000 ft (12,497 m),
·
 
Maximum range with maximum payload – 3,695 nm (6,843 km)The second box represents ten different wings belonging to aircraft with different cruise speeds. Eachof them cruises at a specified Mach number, which varies from 0.75 to 0.90. The cell # 3 contains theconstant parameters for all aircraft, such as weight of the central and front fuselages, empennages, enginecowlings, and pylons. The necessary fuel to fulfill the mission is stored in the wings only. All ten aircraftcommon the same fuselage dimensions.Cell # 4 represents a code developed by authors written in MATLAB
®
language. The code is called
 Asa Turbo
and its purpose is the generation of preliminary wing geometries based on missionrequirements. This preliminary wing is modeled accordingly in CATIA
®
.
 Asa Turbo
also provides thenecessary data for the calculation of the wing loading (SLZ, BMX&TMY) that is performed with theopen-source vortex-lattice code
Tornado
. The wing sweepback angle is calculated in
 Asa Turbo
by aformula relating the sweepback angle to the cruise Mach. This relationship is based on statistical analysisof existing airplane belonging to the aircraft category under consideration. The section labelled fiverepresents the
 Asa Turbo
output
 s
, highlighting the initial estimation of the wing structural weight, whichwill be later compared to the PDWSW calculation.
Fig. 3
reveals the architecture behind
 Asa Turbo
. Box# 6 represents the shape of the airfoils that had been designed by an optimization multipoint algorithm
16
.Cell # 7 symbolizes the CATIA
®
lofting of the wings that were previously designed with
 Asa Turbo
andthat are read into PDWSW for the accurate weight estimation.
910
1
2347
Wing distrubutions loads(SLZ, BMX & TMY).Code
Tornado
.(Processed in MatLab
Ò
)
 
8
Processed in the code PDWSW.
 
Estimative of wingstructural weight
 
- Range : previously defined.- Altitude : previously defined.
- Weight of fuselage, tail, engine,nacelle, and pylon previously defined.- Fuel shall be stored in the wingsonly.Cruise Mach Number:(0.7 to 0.9)
Initial estimative of wing structuralweight
Wing geometricdimensionsAirfoils thicknessratio·
 L
cruise·
Vol 
. fuel
Code
 Asa Turbo
 
(Processed in MatLab
Ò
)
 
Lofting of wingCAD/CATIA
Ò
.
 
6
Airfoilsgeometric
5
Fig. 2 – Workflow of the wing Structural weight estimation.

Activity (29)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Raja Pitalia liked this
smith_bob added this note
Not only is the license (ND term) incompatible with scribd sharing, but it probably also conflicts with the publisher’s requirements. This is an AIAA paper from 2004, written by people working at Embraer.
SAM KUMAR liked this
bobi_cep liked this
Basica Adiwibowo liked this
smith_bob liked this
ginno18019048 liked this
adi liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->