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Powder Metallurgy

Powder Metallurgy

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Published by pankajsinghbaghel

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Published by: pankajsinghbaghel on Mar 12, 2010
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03/19/2013

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Powder Metallurgy
 
the name given to the process by which fine powdered materials are blended, pressed into a desired shape
(compacted),
and then heated
(sintered)
ina controlled atmosphere to bond the contacting surfaces of the particles andestablish the desired properties.
it is commonly designated as
 P/M 
 
it readily lends itself to the mass production of small, intricate parts of high precision, often eliminating the need for additional machining or finishing.
has a little material waste; unusual materials or mixtures can be utilized; andcontrolled degrees of porosity or permeability can be produce.
Major areas of application tend to be those for which the P/M process has strong economicaladvantage or where the desired properties and characteristics would be difficult to obtain byany other method.
Background/history :
Early 3000 B.C.
– a crude form of powder metallurgy appears to have existedin
Egypt
 
Mid- or Late 19
th
Century
the mass production of P/M products begin
Early 20
th
Century
powder metallurgy was used to produce copper coins andmedallions, platinum ingots, and tungsten wires, the primary material for light bulb filaments
1920s
tungsten carbide cutting-tool tips and nonferrous bushings were produced. Other early products were self-lubricating bearings and metallicfilters
After World War II
– a period of rapid technological development occurredwhich are based primarily on automotive applications,
and iron and steel replaced copper as the dominant P/M material.
 aerospace and nuclear developments created accelerated demand forefractory and reactive materials, where P/M processing is quite attractive.
1960s
 – full-density products emerged.
 
1970s
high-performance superalloy components, such as aircraft turbineengine parts
1980s
– the commercialization of rapidly–solidified and amorphous powdersand the development of P/M injection molding technology
Recent years have been ones rapid development and growth for the P/M industry :
From 1960-1980 – the consumption of iron powder increased tenfoldFrom 1980-1990 – the similar increase as the past years occurred and this exponential growthcontinues
P/M has become a proven method of parts production and is now considered as analternative in the manufacture of many components.
The automotive applications account for nearly 75% of the powder metallurgy market.
Other Areas where Powder Metallurgy Products are used extensively:
Household appliances
Recreational equipment
Hand tools
Hardware items
Business machines
Industrial motors
Hydraulics
Areas of Rapid Growth :
Aerospace applications
Advanced composites
Electronic components
Magnetic materials
Metalworking tools
A variety of biomedical and dental applications
 
High-volume Materials :
Stainless steel
High-strength and high-alloy steels
Aluminum
Aluminum alloys
Iron
Copper 
4 Basic Steps of Powder Metallurgy :
1.Powder Manufacture2.Mixing or Blending3.Compacting4.Sintering
Optional Secondary processing often follows to obtain special properties or enhanced precision.
Flowchart of the Powder Metallurgy Process :
Elemental or alloymetal powdersAdditives(lubricants or binders)BlendingDie CompactingSinteringFinished P/M productOptional SecondaryFinishingOptional SecondaryManufacturing

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