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FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES CONSISTING OF BENDS AND ELBOWS

FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES CONSISTING OF BENDS AND ELBOWS

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Published by whoelse_i
Fluid Mechanics Lab Report
Fluid Mechanics Lab Report

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Published by: whoelse_i on Mar 13, 2010
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05/16/2013

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Objectives
1.To investigate the head loss due to friction across bends and elbows.2.To find the bend/elbow constant for given pipe.
Introduction
Minor loss is caused when there is additional component os added to the straight pipesuch as tees, elbows and bend. This minor loss will contribute to head loss due to the frictionacross bends and elbows.Bernoulli’s equation relates pressure, velocity and elevation between any two points in theflow. But since the equation have some restriction, a new term must be introduce.P
1
/ρg + V
1
/2g + z
1
= P
2
/ρg + V
2
/2g + z
2
+ h
L
Head loss is added because in real life situation there are losses. The head loss will increasewhen the fluid flow through fittings (elbows or bends) due to the friction effect that caused bythe viscosity. This situation can be proved by calculation of the drop in the flow rate. Minor losses expressed in terms of 
loss coefficient, Kι
and defined as: Kι = hι / (V²/ (2g). The valuesof Kι are related to the pipe friction factors by a constant which is dependent on the ratio of the bend radius to the pipe diameter R/D.
Procedures
1.Start the pump and wait till there is water flow.2.Raise the swivel tube.3.Adjust the bench regulating valve to provide a small averflow through both inlet tank and overflow pipe.4.Set a series of condition as in Table 1.5.Measure flow rate at each condition using stopwatch and volumetric tank.
 
6.Repeat steps 1-5 for pipe with elbows.
Results
Required volume of water, V = 3 liter = 0.003m
3
Diameter for both pipes, D = 0.003m
3
Temperature of water = 24 ºC 
BENDS
#Outlet head (cm)Inlet head, h
1
 (cm)Inlet head, h
2
(cm)Time, t(second)135385121422303669732325336802942031470275152886025Table 1
ELBOWS
#Outlet head (cm)Inlet head, h
1
 (cm)Inlet head, h
2
(cm)Time, t(second)135426115642304209256325410784842040064445153905038
 
Calculated data:
Table 3
BENDS#
Volumetricflow rate Q(m
3
/s)Averagevelocity V(m/s)Re #(dimensionless)Totalheadloss h
L
(m)Friction factor,(dimensionless)Head loss due toa single bend, h
 b
(m)Bend constant,
 b
17.143 x 10
-5
0.909 10171.41 2.64 0.74 0.44 10.432 9.375 x 10
-5
1.193 13315.712.69 0.44 0.45 6.233 1.034 x 10
-4
0.132 14658.472.56 0.34 0.43 4.924 1.111 x 10
-4
0.141 15777.44 2.44 0.28 0.414.0551.200 x 10
-5
0.15317120.20 2.28 0.22 0.38 3.18Table 4
ELBOWS#
Volumetricflow rate Q(m
3
/s)Averagevelocity V(m/s)Re#(dimensionless)Totalheadloss h
L
(m)Friction factor,(dimensionless)Head loss due toa single bend, h
 b
,(m)Bend constant,
B
14.688 x 10
-5
0.60 6713.80 3.110.97 0.54 29.4325.357 x 10
-5
0.68 7608.983.280.80 0.5724.193 6.25 x 10
-5
0.80 8951.74 3.120.55 0.54 16.554 6.818 x 10
-5
0.87 9735.02 3.360.50 0.58 15.035 7.895 x 10
-5
1.01 11301.57 3.400.38 0.5811.16

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