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SMPS Problems

SMPS Problems

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Published by: ashish19183 on Mar 13, 2010
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08/08/2013

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Identifying Television SMPS Problems
Many of todays television receivers useswitch mode power supplies (SMPS,“choppers” or “switchers”) to regulate theDC voltage that powers the horizontaloutput stage. The SMPS also providesmost of the low voltages that wereproduced by the scan-derived supplies.The SMPS provides excellentB+regulation and removes that extra loadthat the scan-derived supplies placed onthe horizontal stages.This Tech Tip explains how to determine if the startup or shutdown problem iscaused by the SMPS or by the horizontaloutput stage. Refer to Tech Tip#203 foinformation on how the SMPS used intelevision receivers work, and Tech Tip#205 for further information ontroubleshooting television SMPS.
NOTE:
The horizontal output stage is atype of switched mode power supply. Inthis Tech Tip, however, when we refer toSMPS we are referring to the supply that  provides the DC to the horizontal output transistor (H.
O.
T.)
Troubleshooting Overview
The SMPS also provides a means of safety shutdown should the horizontaloutput stage produce excessive highvoltage or draw too much current.Protection circuits shut down the SMPSwhen either of these conditions occurs.This can cause a problem for a servicer since a startup or shutdown condition canbe caused by a problem in either thehorizontal output stages or in the SMPSTroubleshooting the horizontal circuits ina chassis that uses a SMPS to supply Btto the horizontal output transistor involvestroubleshooting a power supply that ispart of another power supply. A dead setmight be caused by a bad horizontal stageor by a bad SMPS. The set might run for ashort time, and then shut down
-
this, too,could be caused by problems in either thehorizontal circuits or the SMPS.The procedures in Tech Tip#131explained how to service the horizontalstartup and shutdown stages in older conventional chassis that did not use aSMPS. Many of those procedures apply totoday’s chassis that use a SMPS to power the horizontal stages. There are two major differences, however. First, you can notlonger use your PR57 Variable AC Power Supply to reduce the DC to the horizontaloutput stages. This is because theB+ isnow provided by the SMPS and a SMPSwill provide a constant output voltage asthe applied AC input voltage is changed.
Fig. 1: The regulated DC for the horizontal output stage is produced by a SMPS. TheSMPS receives unregulated DC from the AC fine.
 
The second difference in troubleshootingstartup and shutdown conditions is aresult of how the protection circuitsproduce shutdown. Shutdown was usuallyachieved by removing the drive signal tothe horizontal output transistor, or byturning off theB+ regulator. In chassisthat use a SMPS however, shutdown isachieved by turning off the SMPS.Most SMPS chassis have a secondary (or “standby”) SMPS which powers theremote control circuits. Since the mainpower supply won’t start if the remotecontrol is dead, check the secondarysupply and the remote control circuitsbefore testing the main supply and thehorizontal output stages. See Tech Tip#205 for more information.
The Key Test Points
Just as the horizontal output transistor (H.O.T.) provides the most important testpoint when testing the horizontal stages,the SMPS output transistor(S.O.T.)provides the best starting point whentroubleshooting a switch mode power supply. Collect as many clues as possiblefrom both test points the first fewseconds after you apply power to separatestartup problems from shutdownproblems.In the following steps you will monitor theoutput of the SMPS S.O.T. with Channel Aof your Waveform Analyzer and thehorizontal retrace pulse (collector of theH.O.T.) with Channel B. You will presetthe Waveform Analyzer controls so thatyou can see any signal, even if it is onlypresent. in the circuit for a moment.
WARNING
This procedure ties the “hot” and“isolated” grounds together. It
isabsolutely essential that the chassisbe connected to an isolationtransformer, such as the Sencore
PR57 AC POWERITE.
Observe safety precautions to avoidshock hazards. Some signals can beover 1200 volts. The input of your measuring instruments must beprotected to a higher voltage thanthis. Using the Waveform Analyzer with its supplied probes, providesprotection to 2500 volts.Follow these steps:
1.
Connect the Channel A probe to theterminal on the switching power transistor which connects to the primary of theswitching transformer (The collector if thetransistor is a bipolar type, or the drain if 
a FET is used).
2. Connect the Channel A probe ground tothe ground of the switching supply’sprimary winding (normally the “hot”ground).3. Connect the Channel B probe to thecollector of the H.O.T.4. Connect the Channel B probe ground tothe ground of the horizontal output stage(normally isolated or “cold” ground).
NOTE:
for correct measurements you must connect BOTH grounds. This will not damage the chassis, as long as it is plugged into an isolation transformer. If you don’t make both ground connectionsthe switcher transformer will causewaveform distortion in the waveforms.
5. Preset the controls on your testinstruments as follows:
PR57:
a. Set for a 117 volt output beforeconnecting the chassisB. Select the “1.5 Amp” range.c.Turn off the PR57 and connect the
chassis.
Waveform Analyzer:
a. Set
the Ch.AVOLTS/DIV to “100”.
b. Set
the Ch.B VOLTS/DIV to “200”.c. Set both INPUT COUPLING switchesto “AC”.d. Set the TIMEBASE-FREQ switch to“10 microsecond”.e. Set the TRIGGERING controls:
SOURCE to “CH B”.
MODE to “Auto”.POLARITY to "+".LEVEL to "0".
f.
Press the “A&B” CRT SELECTORbutton.
g.
Position the Ch. A trace on thesecond major CRT marking from thetop of the screen.h. Position the Ch. B trace
1/2
of amajor CRT marking from the bottomof the screen.i. Press the Channel A “DCV” DIGITALREADOUT button.Now you are ready to observe the eventsthat take place as soon as you applypower to the chassis. The first thing youneed to know is whether a waveformappears in either of the test points.
Analyzing Startup Conditions
Watch for results on your Waveform Analyzer during each step of applyingpower. Each step provides valuable cluesto help you get right to the problem. Thesesteps are outlined in the Trouble Treeshown in Figure 2, and are explained inmore detail in the following steps.
Unregulated DC To SMPS
There should be about 150-160 voltspresent at the drain (or collector) lead of the SMPS output device with the PR57turned on and the chassis turned off. If this voltage is present, you know that theswitcher’s unregulated DC supply isworking. If the voltage is low or missingmove to the Trouble Tree in Figure 3which isolates problems related to theunregulated DC supply, an open SMPStransformer primary winding, or a shortedswitching output device.Move your probe to the input side of theprimary winding (the end connected tounregulated DC) helps isolate the cause. If you see full DC on the input terminal thetransformer primary or some other seriesconnection is open. If you see a lower than normal DC the switching transistor (or a parallel component) is likely shorted.If your troubleshooting points to theunregulated DC supply don’t forget tocheck for a blown fuse. An open fuse canindicate that one of the power supplybridge diodes is shorted, or that there is ashort in the switching supply. Check thediodes before moving on. If the input fuseis blown and the unregulated power supply diodes are good, suspect a shortedswitcher transistor.
Confirm Proper B+ Voltage To H.O.T.
If the unregulated DC voltage is present attheS.O.T., press the Channel B DCVbutton to measure the B+ voltage at thehorizontal output device when you turnthe chassis on. (This is the regulated DC
 
-
WARNING
 _____ 
NEVER defeat the safety shutdowncircuits when troubleshooting shutdownproblems as this may allow excessivehigh voltage to develop. Excessive highvoltage will cause a severe shock hazardand can damage circuits throughout thechassis, as well as the test equipmentconnected to the chassis.defective shutdown circuit. Informationon how to troubleshoot shutdownproblems is covered in other Tech Tips.
Horizontal Running
If you observe pulses at the collector of the horizontal output transistor and theyremain, the “dead set” symptom is notcaused by a horizontal problem. Look for problems in the video amplifiers or one of the low voltage switcher power suppliesthat feeds other circuits.
Fig. 2: Follow these steps to determine if a startup or shutdown problem is caused by 
the horizontal output stages or by the switch mode power supply.
output of the SMPS). Confirm that thisvoltage is correct. Normally it is about130 VDC, but check the schematic for theexact amount. If this voltage is notcorrect it will cause shutdown.Troubleshoot the SMPS if the regulatedBt voltage is incorrect.
Horizontal Shutdown
If the regulated DC output of the SMPS iscorrect carefully observe the CRT on your Waveform Analyzer as you turn on thechassis power. Pay special attention tothe Channel B (H.O.T.) trace (the one near the bottom of the screen) while glancingat the Channel A (S.O.T.) trace soon after.If horizontal pulses (and DC voltage)appear and then disappear, the chassis isstarting up and then going into shutdown.Most chassis that use a SMPS turn off theSMPS when a shutdown condition occursin the horizontal stages. Therefore, the DCvoltage output from the SMPS will goaway. A few chassis, however, mayachieve shutdown by removing thehorizontal drive. If so, the pulses at theH.O.T. will go away but the DC voltage willremain. In either case, the shutdownproblem is likely caused by a defect in thehorizontal stage. Possible problemsinclude a retrace time that is too short,(defective timing capacitor), excessivePPV (an open scan derived load if thechassis uses scan derived supplies), or a
Fig. 4 : Follow these steps to locatehorizontal startup problems.
Horizontal B+ OK, No H.O.T. Pulses
If there is proper B+ voltage at thecollector of the horizontal outputtransistor but no pulses, the SMPS isworking. Follow the procedures in theTrouble Tree in Figure 4, which takes youthrough horizontal startup problems.These steps involve checking for horizontal drive. If there is no drive, checkfor a startup voltage at the horizontaloscillator.
Separate The SMPS From TheHorizontal Output Stage
Fig. 3 Follow these steps to locate problems in
the
unregulated DC supply.
If there is proper unregulated DC at thedrain (or collector) of the switching

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