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Learning Strategies

Learning Strategies

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Published by patyco20101110

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Published by: patyco20101110 on Mar 13, 2010
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Monitors and Teachers as our task is to get our students to learn, howeverthe result does not always meet our expectations and our efforts. And isthat learning depends on several factors: ability, motivation, priorknowledge, or learning strategies.Learning strategies are the set of activities, techniques and methods areplanned according to student needs, the objectives sought and the nature of knowledge, in order to realize the learning process.Define learning strategies involves having clear course objectives,conception of teaching, learning design, according to Weinstein and Mayer(1986), learning strategies are actions students and thoughts that occurduring learning, that have great influence on the motivation and includeaspects such as acquisition, retention and transfer. These authors considerthe strategies and techniques that can be taught to be used during learning.Thus, the goal of any particular learning strategy will be to affect themotivational and emotional state and the manner in which the studentselects, acquires, organizes and integrates new knowledge.In any case the decision facing the choice of a learning strategy will startwith understanding it as a means of constructing knowledge, from theanalysis, evaluation, critical thinking, reflection and debate.Going back to Newman and Wehlage (1993), the approach should betargeted to the authentic learning that is characterized by fivecharacteristics: high-level thinking, depth of knowledge, real worldconnections, substantive dialogue and social support for studentachievement.
A vital element in the development of learning strategies is provided by thelearning environment according to Honebein (1996) should consider theelements embedded in the graph.
We have identified five general types of strategies in education. The firstthree help students to develop and organize content for easier learning(process information), the fourth is aimed at controlling mental activity todirect student learning and, finally, the fifth support Learning for itsoccurrence in the best possible conditions.
Testing Strategies.Are those that actively involves the repetition of content (say, writing), orfocus on key parts of it. Examples:• Repeat aloud words, mnemonics, copy the material object of learning,taking notes verbatim, emphasis.
Strategies developed. They involve making connections between newand familiar. For example:• Paraphrase, summarize, create analogies, take notes, not literal, answerquestions (those listed in the text or the student can be formulated),describe how it relates new information to existing knowledge.
Organization strategies.Group information to make it easier to remember. They involve imposingstructure on learning content, dividing it into parts and identifyingrelationships and hierarchies. They include examples like:• Summarize a text, outline, underline, overview, semantic network,concept map, ordered tree.
Control strategies for understandingThese strategies are linked to Metacognition. Involved remain aware of what isis trying to achieve, keep track of the strategies used and the success withthem and adjust behavior accordingly.If we used the metaphor to compare the mind with a computer, thesestrategies serve as a central processor computer. They are a supervisor of the action and students' thinking, and are characterized by a high level of awareness and voluntary control.Among the metacognitive strategies are: planning, regulation andevaluation
• Strategies for planning.Are those by which direct and control student behavior. They are, therefore,before students take some action. Activities are held as:• Establish the purpose and learning goal• Select the background that are necessary to carry out• Decompose the task into successive steps• Schedule an implementation Schedule• Provide the time needed to accomplish this task, resources needed, theeffort required• Select the strategy to follow• Strategies for regulation, management and supervision. They are usedduring the execution of the task. Indicate the capacity that the student hasto follow the plan laid out and test their effectiveness. Activities areperformed as:• Ask questions• Follow the plan outlined• Adjust the time and effort required by the task• Update and seek alternative strategies in case the previously selected arenot effective.• Evaluation strategies.They are responsible for verifying the learning process. Are conductedduring and after the process. Activities are performed as:• Review the steps.• Assess whether or not to have achieved its objectives.• Evaluate the quality of deliverables.• Decide when to conclude the process undertaken when to pause, thelength of breaks, etc..
Strategies and emotional support.These strategies do not address directly the learning of content. Theprimary mission of these strategies is to improve the effectiveness of learning by improving the conditions under which it occurs. They include:• establish and maintain motivation, focus attention, stay focused, manageanxiety, manage time effectively, and so on.Finally note that some authors relate the learning strategy with a particulartype of learning. For these authors each type of learning (association /restructuring) would be linked to a range of strategies that are specific.• Associative learning:
 • learning by restructuring:
 The following chart graphically represents the types of strategies.

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