Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
13Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
CCNA Wireless Study Guide

CCNA Wireless Study Guide

Ratings: (0)|Views: 134|Likes:
Published by CCNAResources
CCNA Wireless Study Guide
CCNA Wireless Study Guide

More info:

Published by: CCNAResources on Mar 13, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/22/2012

pdf

text

original

 
CCNA4.comCCNA4.com
CCNA Wireless Study Guide 
Waves, Frequencies, and RF
Waves
 – Wireless starts and ends with waves, specifically radio waves. There are differentmodulation techniques to encode data onto a carrier wave signal. These techniques differ  between the 3 (now 4 with N) flavors of wireless, A, B, and G.
DSSS (Direct SequenceSpread Spectrum)
is the modulation technique used by 802.11b, which uses “chippingcodes” to send redundant data to allow for interference.
OFDM (Orthogonal FrequencyDivision Multiplexing)
is the modulation technique used by 802.11a and 802.11g. Thistechnique divides a channel into multiple subcarriers, similar to how a T1 is divided up. Datais sent simultaneously over these subchannels to achieve redundancy and a combined higher data rate.
MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)
is the modulation technique used by802.11n and allows a device to use more than 1 antenna for sending data and 1 antenna for receiving data. This is the main thing that helps N products achieve such higher data ratesthan a and b/g, along with many other advances in how signals are processed.
Frequencies
– All wireless devices use unlicensed frequencies, meaning that you do not haveto apply for a license from the FCC to use them and they are subject to interference fromother devices. Within the frequencies assigned to a and b/g there are also “channels,” whichare the portion of the frequency that an individual device can use. This is less important for 802.11a devices as AP’s using 802.11a will automatically sense and choose a channel that isless likely to conflict with the AP’s around it. A also has a lot more non-overlapping channelsto choose from – 23 within the
5GHz range of 802.11a
. 802.11b only has 3 non-overlappingchannels to choose from within the
2.4Ghz range 802.11b
uses. If 2 AP’s next to each other are transmitting at on the same channel, the signal to noise ratio will rise and the bandwidthavailable will decrease.
RF
– Radio Frequency waves behave like light waves or any other waves. They are subject tomany issues that can degrade performance of a wireless network. Surveying before deployinga network and periodically helps mitigate these issues.
Absorbtion
describes how waves are blocked by walls or dampened by carpet. This is similar to how sound waves are absorbed.
Scattering
is how waves are reflected by something in the air, like heavy rain.
Refraction
describes how a wave’s path is altered by passing through something, such as think glass.This is similar to what happens to light waves as they pass through a prism.
Reflection
describes how waves bounce off of shiny or reflective objects, which can cause more noise aswireless frames arrive out of order, causing a “multipath issue” where signals can become outof phase and cancel each other out.
Line of Sight
can become an issue in wireless WANdeployments as the curvature of the earth itself can become an obstacle, making taller towersnecessary.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
is a measurement of how strong a signal is compared to allthe surrounding noise. This can be helpful when diagnosing issues with RF coverage or deciding how to place AP’s.
Topologies
 
WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, and WWAN – A WPAN
(Wireless Personal Area network) is
 
CCNA4.comCCNA4.com
limited to 20ft and is primarily for peripheral devices (mice, Bluetooth devices, etc), operateson the unlicensed 2.4GHz spectrum and is generally limited to 8 active devices. It can also becalled a “piconet.” A
WLAN
(Wireless Local Area Network) operates on the 2.4 or 5 GHzspectrum, spans about 100 meters from AP to client, and is more flexible to allow more than 8devices. WLANs and their clients are dual-band, supporting different transmission methods indifferent areas. A
WMAN
(Wireless Metropolitan Area Network) is slower than a WLAN, but covers more distance with speeds closer to broadband. Also includes WiMAX. Speedsdecrease with distance. A
WWAN
(Wireless Wide Area Network) is essentially a wirelessWAN connection with low rates, high cost and a licensed frequency.
802.11 Topologies
– Originally, there were 2 modes for 802.11 networks – 
Ad Hoc
andInfrastructure. Ad hoc networks are made by wireless clients without a central devicecontrolling them, like an AP. These are also called
IBSS
(Independent Basic Service Set) andare frowned upon for enterprise use for a number of issues, many of them security related.
Network Infrastructure Mode
is the one most commonly used in enterprises. When there isonly 1 AP, it is called a
BSA
or Basic Service Area or wireless cell, if more than 1 AP isconnected, then it is called a
ESA
or Extended Service Area.
SSID’s
– Service Set Identifiers (SSIDs) are mapped to a MAC address on the AP that youare connecting to. The MAC address can be the MAC address of the wireless radio on the APor a virtual one it generates. If an AP has only 1 SSID, it is called a
BSSID
or Basic ServiceSet Identifier. If an AP has more than one SSID, it is called a
MBSSID
(Multiple BasicService Set Identifier.
Bridges
 – Cisco offers 2 types of workgroup bridges, which help extend a wired network toan area you can’t run cable to. They are point-to-point wireless connections. AutonomousWorkgroup Bridge (aWGB) and Universal Workgroup Bridge (uWGB).
Repeaters
 – A repeater extends the reach of a WLAN and does not require a wiredconnection. Regular Cisco AP’s can act as repeaters, but there is a performance hit with eachhop.
Outdoor Wireless Bridges
– These connect wired LANs together in either a point-to-pointconnection or point-to-multipoint connection, like from building to building. Aironet 1300 bridges and Aironet 1400 bridges can do this. A 1300 series will also connect clients and usesthe 2.4 GHz range. The 1400 uses the 5 GHz range.
Outdoor Mesh Networks
– This allows a bunch of AP’s to form a mesh network. Requirescontrollers.
Antennas
 
Polarization
 – RF waves are electro-magnetic waves, so like a magnet, they have polarization. This is a bigger issue for outdoor deployments than indoor, but is one of thereasons to be careful how you position an antenna.
 
CCNA4.comCCNA4.comDiversity
 – The use of 2 antennas for each radio to increase the odds of getting a good signal.
Antenna Types:Omnidirectional
– Across the Horizontal plane or Azimuth, the signal spreads fairly evenly.In the veritical plane or Elevation plane, signal propagates mainly downward, meaning that anAP on the ceiling will not bleed so much to the floor above. These are generally the mostcommon.
2.2-dBi Dipole
– Similar propagation to an omnidirectional, but with a doughnut shape in thaton the Elevation plane there are some gaps in the middle. These look like short plastic polesand usually have a hinge where they can be bent.
Directional Antennas
– Give more control over RF propagation, such as parabolic dishes andon walls.
8.5-dBi Patch, Wall Mount
– Most signal is focused forward, with a little allowed to bleed back.
13.5 Yagi Antenna
– Very directed, focused RF pattern, such as a straight shot down ahallway.
21-dBi Parabolic Dish
– Very, very narrow path…must be calibrated correctly. Most allowyou to change polarity to make them easier to mount.
Antenna Connectors and Hardware:Attenuators
 – reduces signal between the radio and antenna to comply with FCC regs.
Amplifiers
 – Adds gain to strengthen a signal between the AP and antenna.
Lightning Arrestors
 – Prevents surges from lightning strikes from traveling from an antennato a LAN and damaging equipment. Does not stop direct strikes.
802.11 Protocols
Original 802.11 Protocol
– RF tech: FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) andDSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum), Coding: Barker 11, Not used today because it onlyyields 1 to 2 Mbps.
802.11b Protocol
– RF tech: DSSS, 2.4GHz spectrum, Coding: Barker 11 and CCK (Complementary Code Keying), Modulation: DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase-ShiftKeying). Gives data rates of 1,2,5.5, and 11 Mbps and has 3 non-overlapping channels of 1, 6,11. Backwards compatible with original 802.11.

Activity (13)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Kaushik Chauhan liked this
Nitin Sharma liked this
Mario Palacios liked this
kgraman liked this
sugatmaharjan liked this
LOVEMEONCE43 liked this
tmopeli3130 liked this
alvin2nd liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->