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Application of Spectral Decomposition Seismic Attribute For

Application of Spectral Decomposition Seismic Attribute For

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Published by: hhassani on Mar 14, 2010
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03/11/2013

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Application of spectral decomposition seismic attribute foridentification geological characteristics
Mohammad Reza Saadati Nejad
(1)
, Hosein Hasani
(1)
, Mojtaba MohammadoKhorasani
(2)
, Abdolrahim Javaherian
(3)
and Mohammad Reza Sokooti
(2)*(1)
Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran,
(2)
 National Iranian Oil Company, Exploration Directorate,Geophysics Dept., Tehran,
(3)
Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, P. O. Box14155-6466, Tehran.saadatinejad@yahoo.com, hhassani@aut.ac.ir, khorasani@niocexp.ir, javaheri@ut.ac.ir, rsokooti@gmail.com
Summary
Seismic interpretation in principal tries to find any small changes, as subtlestratigraphic plays and areas of low-relief faulting. Looking at the amplitude of reflections at particular frequencies may be helpful to see more clearly features which may not be seenfrom a fixed map view. Spectral decomposition breaks the seismic signal into its frequencycomponents. This title refers to methods produces frequency spectrum of each sample of seismic trace. The method includes variety of algorithms, continues wavelet transform (CWT)and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) are most common in exploration.Although work is not the first attempt to translate attributes to, but an effort to visualizegeological features in presence of reef structure in Sarvak, directly from geophysical data.The results from spectral decomposition display of 3D seismic data enable interpretation of seismic data very fast and effective in comparison with standard interpretation have done in previous works.
Introduction
Usually conventional seismic and their attributes are used to interpret the geophysical data tothe geology. Data contains wide range of frequencies sometimes could hide a particular eventthat is trying to be detected. Spectral decomposition is a quick and effective method that gives better definition to determine stratigraphic architecture and structural features.Seismic interpretation in principal disciplines tries to find seismic geomorphology. To studyany small changes, especially subtle stratigraphic plays or areas of low-relief faulting, in itmay be helpful to look at the amplitude of reflections at particular frequencies. With thistechnique it is possible to analyze independently each frequency revealing features that werehidden before, to see more clearly features which may not be seen from a fixed map view.Since time-frequency mapping is a non-unique process, there exist various time-frequencyanalysis methods. The first and widely used method is the short-time Fourier transform(STFT) in which a time-frequency spectrum is produced by taking the Fourier transform over a short time window (Cohen, 1995).The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) provides represents the frequency band from scaledwavelet, has an advantage as does not relate to a fix window.The target carbonate formation has with two major fancies, a massive limestone containingRudists the other is deeper water fancies of thinner bedded limestone. According to analogyreefs occur in the first layer in the area, but absence of wells data is a problem to reach theformation directly. This paper tries to evaluate geophysical this potential.
Methodology
The study is performed on 3D seismic data; the wells did not touch the target formation in theinterested area (Figure1). The seismic data was not high frequency and post stack bandlimited filtering and scaling was performed in processing sequence. Therefore data was notideal for such studies. In order to evaluate presence of this reef according to temporalthickness, both FFT and CWT were applied to data as each one has advantages. The Time
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EAGE Conference & Exhibition — Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8 - 11 June 2009
 
horizons, picked with some guide lines then auto tracked to whole area. The result horizonthen smoothed in order to prevent and misreading amplitude in cube.The FFT method, which is a window base method, is the classical way to extract and evaluatefrequency spectrum of data in seismic data processing, when experts interested in data from along window. To concentrate on the target area (e.g. a faulted horizon slice) we needdecreasing the window length, the frequency resolution in frequency domain will becompromised.The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) provides a different approach to time-frequencyanalysis. It produces a time-scale map.Since scale represents a frequency band, it is notintuitive if we wish to interpret the frequency content of the signal; the advantage iscalculation does not need any window of data.The isopatch map of Mishrif in Figure1 displays a build up, that show the formation has a reef  probable structure as thickness tends to be zero out above the structure and in Figure2 showonlap on reef structure with Gamma-ray log. The RMS amplitude of Mishrif horizon slice(Figure3) shows a ring pattern around the paleo-high. Relief around the horizon shows athickness of the formation is in creases in the direction.
Figure 1:
Left) Isopatch map. Right) similarity attribute of Mishrif surface and wellslocation. Red color in left shows thinning and blue color show thickness of the formation.
Sarvak, the target formation is lateral equivalent of Maudud, Ahamdi-Wara and Rumalia-Mishrif of Kuwait. It developed into two facies a massive limestone deposited in a nereticenvironment containing Rudists Gastropods and Pelecypods, the other is deep water limestone. The Kazhdomi formation as source rock could make a good hydrocarbon system.The upper contact of Sarvak is marked by the erosional unconformity. The isopatch map of Mishrif Figure1 displays the build up. Seismic cross section shows a buildup in middleFigure2, the Saravk is thinner in direction of buildup and disappear in presence of unconformity. At the Sarvak horizon, the spectral amplitude maps were generated around a 10to 80 ms time window. Within this window the total spectral amplitude were extracted.
Figure 2:
Seismic cross-section from Sarvak formation and above and under formation withGamma-ray log. Pink, green, yellow, red, blue and pink lines are top of Illam, Mishrif,
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EAGE Conference & Exhibition — Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8 - 11 June 2009
 
 Ahmadi, Maudud, Kazhdomi and Burgan formation consequently. Red arrows indicate suggestive system track in Mishrif member too.
After parameter test on horizon base attribute, we compare a brief of our result in Figure3.The original RMS amplitude of 8ms above and 16ms below the interpreted Sarvak horizon 3aand corresponding amplitude of 15Hz and 28Hz frequency shows the direct related of peak spectral frequency in horizon slices.
Figure 3:
The result of RMS amplitude of broad band horizon slice of upper Sarvak. Left) thethicker thickness event at the 7 Hz common frequency horizon slice. Middle) the mid thickness the 15Hz common frequency horizon slices. Right) the thinner the 30 Hz amplitudeof upper Sarvak. There is a better show of reef boundary
. (a)(b)
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EAGE Conference & Exhibition — Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8 - 11 June 2009HighAmp.LowAmp.HighAmp.LowAmp.

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