Cerebrovascular AccidentCerebrovascular Accident is a sudden loss of function resulting from disruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain. Stroke, also called brain attack or ischemicstroke, happens when the arteries leading to the brain are blocked or ruptured. Whenthe brain does not receive the needed oxygen supply, the brain cells begin to die, astroke can cause paralysis, inability to talk, inability to understand, and other conditionsbrought on by brain damage.Four types of stoke:
Cerebral Thrombosis- caused by blood clots.
Cerebral Embolism- caused by blood clots.
Cerebral Hemorrhage- caused by bleeding inside the brain.4.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage- caused by bleeding inside the brain.Cerebral Thrombosis
The most common type of brain attack.
Occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms and blocks blood flow in an arteryleading to the brain arteries primarily affected by atherosclerosis and moresusceptible to blood clots.
Most often occurs at night or in the morning when blood pressure in low.
Often preceded by a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or “mini-stroke”.Cerebral Embolism
Occurs when a wondering clot (embolus) or some other particle forms in a bloodvessel away from the brain, usually in the heart. The clot then travels and lodges inan artery leading on the brain.Cerebral Hemorrhage
Occurs when a defective artery in the brain busts.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Occurs when a blood vessel on the surface of the brain ruptures and bleeds intothe space between the brain and the skull. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of stroke is “rapidly developingclinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function, with symptoms lasting24 hours or longer or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than of (1) Non-communicable disease. WHO Geneva (2) vascular origin” (3) By applying this definitiontransient ischemic attack (TIA), which is defined to less than 24 hours, and patients withstroke symptoms caused by subdural hemorrhage, tumors, poisoning, or trauma, areexcluded.Based from the data gathered from TCGPH records section, there were 10 reportedcases of CVA as of January 2009 until December 2009 comprises of 2 mortality cases and8 morbidity cases.
Why this case?
We have chosen this case as our topic during the case presentation because wewould like that we, student-nurses, to be aware about CVA and also to broaden ourknowledge about the management and treatment of this disease.
Having awareness and gaining more knowledge about CVA would enhance ourskills and attitudes in handling patients suffering from this disease.