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USA TODAY Collegiate Case Study: The Truth About Sleep: Myths, Realities, Needs

USA TODAY Collegiate Case Study: The Truth About Sleep: Myths, Realities, Needs

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Published by USA TODAY Education
How much sleep do you need? The answer is simple: It depends. On you, that is.
But the picture is becoming clearer every year about what happens when there is not enough. Sleep researchers are putting together a daunting picture of what happens to us mentally, physically and emotionally when we cheat ourselves of this basic need. This case study explores some of the realities and effects of sleep deprivation and provides tips for understanding your own sleep needs and how to keep yourself in top performance mode. Your future depends on it!
How much sleep do you need? The answer is simple: It depends. On you, that is.
But the picture is becoming clearer every year about what happens when there is not enough. Sleep researchers are putting together a daunting picture of what happens to us mentally, physically and emotionally when we cheat ourselves of this basic need. This case study explores some of the realities and effects of sleep deprivation and provides tips for understanding your own sleep needs and how to keep yourself in top performance mode. Your future depends on it!

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Published by: USA TODAY Education on Mar 15, 2010
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03/17/2012

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 The Truth about Sleep:
Myths, Realities and Needs
How much sleep do you need? The answer is simple: It depends. On you,that is.But the picture is becoming clearer every year about what happens whenthere is not enough. Sleep researchers are putting together a daunting pic-ture o what happens to us mentally, physically and emotionally when wecheat ourselves o this basic need.This case study explores some o the realities and eects o sleep deprivationand provides tips or understanding your own sleep needs and how to keepyoursel in top perormance mode. Your uture depends on it!
Lack o sleep sendsemotions o deep end
1-2
Sleep deprivation might leadto Alzheimer’s disease
5
Sleep habits aect weight,study fnds
4
Extended sleep may giveathletes a boost
4
Drowsy drivers: A wake-upcall
2-3
 Additional Resources
10-11
Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.
By Sharon JaysonUSA TODAYYou might have guessed it, but nowresearchers have real proo: Sleepdeprivation causes our emotions togo haywire.That’s according to the rst neu-rological probe into the emotionalbrain without sleep. It was carriedout by researchers at the Universityo Caliornia-Berkeley and HarvardMedical School.“Most people think that whenyou’re sleep-deprived, what hap-pens to the brain is that it becomessleepy and less active,” says Mat-thew Walker, assistant proessoro psychology at Berkeley and aormer Harvard sleep researcher.But Walker says the imaging studypublished in today’s issue o Cur-rent Biology ound that the brain’semotional centers become “60%more reactive.The study also suggests that lack o sleep elevates activity in the emo-tional centers o the brain mostclosely associated with psychiatricdisorders such as depression.Walker’s team studied 26 peopleages 18 to 30 who were divided into
Cover Story
Lack o sleep sendsemotions o deep end
CollegiateCaseStudy
THE NATION’S NEWSPAPER
 www.usatodaycollege.com
Late nights could catch up with you
6-7
Regular bedtime boosts chanceor success in school
 
8-9
 
Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.Page 2
 As seen in USA TODAY LIFE Section, Tuesday, October 23, 2007 Page 2D
two groups. The sleep-deprived group was awake 35hours; the other group slept normally.Using the brain scans, the researchers showed par-ticipants a series o images, rom neutral to increas-ingly negative and disturbing. The responses o bothgroups showed up as hot spots, but the sleep-deprivedevoked stronger responses because the prerontalarea o the brain that normally sends out inhibitingsignals wasn’t able to keep emotions in check.Though the thinking has been that psychiatric disor-ders cause poor sleep, Walker says now he’s not sosure because those he studied didn’t have psychiatricconditions, yet they exhibited emotional brain reac-tions similar to psychiatric conditions.Mary Carskadon, a proessor o psychiatry and humanbehavior at Brown University who has studied ado-lescents and sleep deprivation, says the new study iscompatible with her ndings. She is particularly con-cerned about what it means or adolescents, who areoten sleep-deprived and who are being diagnosedwith depression in increasing numbers.“What we don’t know is whether early sleep depriva-tion then projects out to things like major depressivedisorder or bipolar illness and whether we’re reallysetting up our kids or these major problems as theygrow up,” she says.
 As seen in USA TODAY NEWS Section, Thursday, April 2, 2009 Page 3A
Drowsy drivers: A wake-up call
Sleep deprivation carries risks similar to drunken driving’s
By Larry CopelandUSA TODAYLionel Edwards used to nod o while driving. Foryears, he’d get behind the wheel and ater ve to 10minutes nd himsel dozing.“I was so exhausted because I wasn’t getting theproper sleep,” he says. “It was really, really bad, espe-cially at night.”Two years ago, Edwards, 39, was driving to hisPottstown, Pa., home ater working a night shit. Heell asleep, waking to the rantic honking o a wom-an whose car he was orcing o the road. “She wasalready on the shoulder,” Edwards says, adding thathe pulled over just in time or the woman to avoidcrashing into a ditch. “I told my wie, and she was re-ally upset. She said I had to (get help).”Drowsy driving is one o the most vexing problemsinvolving trac saety. It is a actor in more than100,000 crashes, resulting in 1,550 deaths and 40,000injuries annually, according to the National HighwayTrac Saety Administration. “That’s probably a con-servative estimate,” says Je Michael, the NHTSA’sassociate administrator or research and program de-velopment.Darrel Drobnich, chie program ocer o the Nation-al Sleep Foundation, puts the numbers much higher:71,000 injuries and more than 5,500 deaths a year.“It’s a huge problem that’s largely gone unreportedbecause we don’t have good, hard police data,” hesays.An obstacle or police is that there is no test ordrowsy driving like the Breathalyzer an ocer cangive a motorist suspected o drunken driving.
 A new battle
Some sleep experts and state legislators say the na-tion’s progress against drowsy driving is about where
 
Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.Page 3
 As seen in USA TODAY NEWS Section, Thursday, April 2, 2009 Page 3A
the campaign against drunken driving was 30 yearsago. That was beore Mothers Against Drunk Driv-ing (MADD), beore any stigma in getting behind thewheel ater drinking, beore every state adopted asingle standard or driving while intoxicated.“Years ago, we didn’t think anything o getting in acar ater having a ew drinks,” says Carol Ash, medi-cal director o a sleep program at Somerset Medi-cal Center in Somerville, N.J. “Sleep deprivation hasthe same impact. Your judgment becomes impaired,whether you realize it or not. We’re starting to un-derstand that drowsy driving is the same as drivingintoxicated.”According to Ash and other researchers, a personwho drives ater 18 consecutive hours without sleepperorms at the same level as a person with a blood-alcohol concentration o .08% — the legal standardor drunken driving in all 50 states and the Districto Columbia.About 250,000 drivers all asleep at the wheel daily,says Charles Czeisler, director o the Division o SleepMedicine at Harvard Medical School and chie o theDivision o Sleep Medicine at Brigham and Women’sHospital in Boston. “There’s an epidemic o drowsydriving crashes, particularly among young drivers,”he says.In a national poll released last month by the NationalSleep Foundation, 54% o adult drivers said they haddriven while drowsy during the past year; 28% saidthey had actually allen asleep while driving.
 A widespread malady
About 40 million-50 million Americans suer romsleep disorders, but like Edwards was, about 85% o them are undiagnosed. Yet they account or only asmall percentage o drowsy drivers, who are morelikely to be young people and night-shit workers,Czeisler and other experts say.Legislators in some states — spurred by the deathso constituents by drowsy drivers — are trying toaddress the issue. New Jersey is the only state thatcriminalizes drowsy driving in a atal crash by classi-ying it as recklessness under its vehicular homicidestatute. No state has a law dealing with non-atalsleep-related crashes.“The problem has been that people don’t take it allthat seriously,” says Massachusetts state Sen. Rich-ard Moore, a Democrat. He has been pursuing stierpenalties since 2002, when a constituent was killedby a driver who had allen asleep and later admit-ted he had been up all night playing video games,he says. “The penalty was a slap on the wrist, sus-pension o his driver’s license or a couple years andprobation.” 
Grateul or sound sleep
Edwards, now a night security counselor at a youthcenter, was working the overnight shit at the Wal-Mart in Boyertown, Pa., in 2007. He had just letwork when he had the near-accident that changedhis lie.Ater his narrow escape and at the insistence o hiswie, Jamesha, he went to University Services SleepDiagnostic and Treatment Centers in Pottstown. Helearned he has obstructive sleep apnea, a disorder inwhich a person’s sleep is repeatedly interrupted asmuscles in the throat ail to keep the airway open.Edwards was tted with a mask that ts over thenose and mouth and blows air into the airway tokeep it open during sleep. He sleeps soundly nowand says he’s thankul he didn’t kill anyone: “Yes, ohmy God, yes.”He was lucky: “The greatest predictor that you’re go-ing to have a sleep-related crash,” Czeisler says, “isyou just had a near-miss.”

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