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Surfactant Classification

Surfactant Classification

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LABORATORY OF FORMULATION, INTERFACESRHEOLOGY AND PROCESSES
UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES
FACULTAD DE INGENIERIAESCUELA DE INGENIERIA QUIMICA
Mérida-VenezuelaVersión # 2 (2002)
*********
 Jean-Louis SALAGER
TEACHING AID IN SURFACTANT SCIENCE & ENGINEERING
FIRP BOOKLET # E300-A
SURFACTANTSTypes and Uses
FIRP BOOKLET # E300-A
in English
 
-
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. AMPHIPHILES and SURFACTANTS1.1.Amphiphiles21.2.Tension lowering Agent versus Surfactant21.3.Classification of Surfactants31.4.Production and Uses52. RAW MATIERIALS FOR SURFACTANTS2.1.Natural Oil and Fats: Triglycerides72.2.Other naturals Substances92.3.Raw materials from Petroleum112.4.Intermediate Chemicals133. ANIONIC SURFACTANTS3.1.Soaps and other Carboxylates173.2.Sulfonation and Sulfatation183.3.Sulfates193.4.Sulfonates213.5.Other Anionic Surfactants264. NONIONIC SURFACTANTS4.1.Nonionic Surfactant Types284.2.Ethoxylated Alcohols and Alkylphenols294.3.Fatty acid Esters314.4.Nitrogenated Nonionic Surfactants345. CATIONIC SURFACTANTS5.1.Linear Alkyl-amines and Alkyl-ammoniums365.2.Other Cationic Surfactants395.3.Nitrogenated Surfactants with a second hydrophile406.OTHER SURFACTANTS6.1.Amphoteric Surfactants 426.2.Silicon Surfactants436.3.Fluorinated Surfactants446.4.Polymeric Surfactants or Surfactant Polymers446.5.Association Polymers47BIBLIOGRAPHY48
 
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1. AMPHIPHILES AND SURFACTANTS
1.1. AMPHIPHILES
The word
amphiphile
was coined by Paul Winsor 50 years ago. It comes from two Greek roots. First the prefix
amphi 
 
which means "double", "from both sides", "around", as inamphitheater or amphibian. Then the root
 philos
which expresses friendship or affinity, as in"philanthropist" (the friend of man), "hydrophilic" (compatible with water), or "philosopher" (thefriend of wisdom or science).An amphiphilic substance exhibits a double affinity, which can be defined from the physico-chemical point of view as a polar-apolar duality. A typical amphiphilic moleculeconsists of two parts: on the one hand a polar group which contents heteroatoms such as O, S, P,or N, included in functional groups such as alcohol, thiol, ether, ester, acid, sulfate, sulfonate, phosphate, amine, amide etc… On the other hand, an essentially apolar group which is in generalan hydrocarbon chain of the alkyl or alkylbenzene type, sometimes with halogen atoms and evena few nonionized oxygen atoms.The polar portion exhibits an strong affinity for polar solvents, particularly water, and it isoften called
hydrophilic
part or 
hydrophile.
The apolar part is called
hydrophobe
or 
lipophile
,from Greek roots
 phobos
(fear) and
lipos
(grease). The following formula shows an amphiphilicmolecule which is commonly used in shapoos (sodium dodecyl sulfate).
1.2. TENSION LOWERING AGENT versus SURFACTANT
Because of its dual affinity, an amphiphilic molecule does not feel "at ease" in anysolvent, be it polar or non polar, since there is always one of the groups which "does not like" thesolvent environment. This is why amphiphilic molecules exhibit a very strong tendency tomigrate to interfaces or surfaces and to orientate so that the polar group lies in water and theapolar group is placed out of it, and eventually in oil.In the following the word
 surface
will be used to designate the limit between a condensed phase and a gas phase, whereas the term
interface
will be used for the boundary between twocondensed phases. This distinction is handy though not necessary, and the two words are oftenused indifferently particularly in american terminology.In English the term
surfactant
(short for 
 surface-active-agent 
) designates a substancewhich exhibits some superficial o interfacial activity. It is worth remarking that all amhiphiles donot display such activity; in effect, only the amphiphiles with more or less equilibratedhydrophilic and lipophilic tendencies are likely to migrate to the surface or interface. It does nothappen if the amphiphilic molecule is too hydrophilic or too hydrophobic, in which case it staysin one of the phases.
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
H C
3
-O-S-O NaOO+-
Sodium Dodecyl (ester) Sulfate.
 

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