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Respiratory System

Respiratory System

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Published by extraordinarysitay
Respiratory System - a brief discussion
Respiratory System - a brief discussion

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Published by: extraordinarysitay on Mar 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Respiratory System
it is an organ system specialized primarily to provide oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from it. It serves for speech and other vocalizations, provides the senseof smell, controls the pH of the body by eliminating carbon dioxide and it helps regulate blood pressure.The principal organs of the respiratory system include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, andlungs.The respiratory system can be divided into two divisions, the conducting division which is the passage that serves only for air flow (nostrils to bronchioles) and the respiratory division which consistsof the alveoli and other distal gas exchange regions.The respiratory system can also be divided into two tracts, the upper respiratory tract whichserves as the airway from the nose through the larynx (respiratory organs in the head and neck) and thelower respiratory tract which are the regions from the trachea through the lungs
Upper Respiratory Tract
 Nose and Nasal Cavity
The nose warms and cleansesinhaled airs. It detects odors in theairstream and it has resonatingchambers that amplifies the voice.
Asyouinhale, small specks of dirt aretrapped by many tiny hairs in your nose. This cleans the air. The hairsstop the dirt from going further inyour body. The moist inside surface in your nose traps even smaller pieces of dirt.The nose extends from the nostrils (anterior nares) to the chronae (posterionares).
Inside the nose is the nasal cavity which the air passage behind the nose plays animportant role in breathing. The nasal cavity is divided into a right and left passageway(nasal fossae) . The tissue (nasal septum) that covers the wall of your nasal cavitycontains many blood vessels. Heat from the blood in the vessels helps warm the air asyou breath. Moisture is added to the air you breath by special cells in the walls of thenasal cavity. The air is warmed and moistened before it reaches your lungs.
PharynxThe pharynx is a muscular funnel extending from the
choanae (posterior nasalaperture)
to the larynx. It has three regionsnamely the
nasopharynx, oropharynx andlaryngopharynx.
The nasopharynx receives theauditory tubes and houses the pharyngealtonsil and passes only air. The oropharynxcontains the palatine and lingual tonsils and passes air, food, and drink. Thelaryngopharynx ends at the opening of the esophagus and passes air, food, and drink.
Because bothfoodandair pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called theepiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to  preventchokingor aspiration. Inhumans the pharynx is important invocalization.
Lar ynxThe Larynx (plural
), colloquiallyknown as the "voice box", is anorganin theneck of  mammalsinvolved in protection of thetracheaand sound production. It manipulates pitch and volume.The larynx houses thevocal folds, which are anessential component of phonation. The vocal folds aresituated just below where the tract of the pharynxsplitsinto thetracheaand theesophagus. The superior opening of thelarynx, the glottis (back of thetongue) is guarded by a flapof tissue called the epiglottis.At rest, the epiglottis usually
stands almost vertically. During swallowing, extrinsic muscles of the larynx pullthe larynx upward toward the epiglottis, the tongue then pushes the epiglottisdownward to meet it, and the epiglottis directs food and drink into the esophagusdorsal to the airway.
Lower Respiratory Tract
Trachea, Bronchi, and AlveoliTrachea is a common term for an airway through which respiratory air passes in organisms. Invertebrates, it is held open by up to 20 C-shaped rings of cartilage, and may also beknown as the "windpipe." Thetrachea divides into two main
, the left andthe right, at the level of thesternal angleatthe anatomical point known as the carina.Theright main bronchusis wider, shorter,and more vertical than theleft main bronchus. The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller passageways until theyterminate in tiny air sacs called
Thealveolar ductsandalveoliconsist primarily of simple squamous epithelium, which permits rapid diffusion of oxygen  andcarbon dioxide. Exchange of gases between the air in thelungs and the blood in thecapillariesoccurs across the wallsof the alveolar ducts and alveoli.

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