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String Theory and Non Commutative Geometry

String Theory and Non Commutative Geometry

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08/10/2010

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IASSNS-HEP-99/74hep-th/9908142
String Theory and Noncommutative Geometry
Nathan Seiberg and Edward Witten 
School of Natural SciencesInstitute for Advanced StudyOlden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540We extend earlier ideas about the appearance of noncommutative geometry in string theorywith a nonzero
B
-field. We identify a limit in which the entire string dynamics is describedby a minimally coupled (supersymmetric) gauge theory on a noncommutative space, anddiscuss the corrections away from this limit. Our analysis leads us to an equivalencebetween ordinary gauge fields and noncommutative gauge fields, which is realized by achange of variables that can be described explicitly. This change of variables is checked bycomparing the ordinary Dirac-Born-Infeld theory with its noncommutative counterpart.We obtain a new perspective on noncommutative gauge theory on a torus, its
-duality,and Morita equivalence. We also discuss the
D
0
/D
4 system, the relation to
-theory inDLCQ, and a possible noncommutative version of the six-dimensional (2
,
0) theory.8/99
 
1. Introduction
The idea that the spacetime coordinates do not commute is quite old [1]. It has beenstudied by many authors both from a mathematical and a physical perspective. The theoryof operator algebras has been suggested as a framework for physics in noncommutativespacetime – see [2] for an exposition of the philosophy – and Yang-Mills theory on anoncommutative torus has been proposed as an example [3]. Though this example at firstsight appears to be neither covariant nor causal, it has proved to arise in string theory in adefinite limit [4], with the noncovariance arising from the expectation value of a backgroundfield. This analysis involved toroidal compactification, in the limit of small volume, withfixed and generic values of the worldsheet theta angles. This limit is fairly natural in thecontext of the matrix model of 
-theory [5,6], and the original discussion was made in this context. Indeed, early work relating membranes to large matrices [7], has motivatedin [8,9] constructions somewhat similar to [3]. For other thoughts about applications of  noncommutative geometry in physics, see e.g. [10]. Noncommutative geometry has alsobeen used as a framework for open string field theory [11].Part of the beauty of the analysis in [4] was that
-duality acts within the non-commutative Yang-Mills framework, rather than, as one might expect, mixing the modesof noncommutative Yang-Mills theory with string winding states and other stringy ex-citations. This makes the framework of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory seem verypowerful.Subsequent work has gone in several directions. Additional arguments have beenpresented extracting noncommutative Yang-Mills theory more directly from open stringswithout recourse to matrix theory [12-16]. The role of Morita equivalence in establishing
-duality has been understood more fully [17,18]. The modules and their
-dualities havebeen reconsidered in a more elementary language [19-21], and the relation to the Dirac- Born-Infeld Lagrangian has been explored [20,21]. The BPS spectrum has been more fully understood [19,20,22]. Various related aspects of noncommutative gauge theories have been discussed in [23-32]. Finally, the authors of [33] suggested interesting relations between noncommutative gauge theory and the little string theory [34].
Large Instantons And The
α
Expansion 
Our work has been particularly influenced by certain further developments, includingthe analysis of instantons on a noncommutative
R
4
[35]. It was shown that instantons ona noncommutative
R
4
can be described by adding a constant (a Fayet-Iliopoulos term)1
 
to the ADHM equations. This constant had been argued, following [36], to arise in thedescription of instantons on
D
-branes upon turning on a constant
B
-field [37],
1
so puttingthe two facts together it was proposed that instantons on branes with a
B
-field should bedescribed by noncommutative Yang-Mills theory [35,38]. Another very cogent argument for this is as follows. Consider
parallel threebranes of Type IIB. They can support supersymmetric configurations in the form of 
(
) instantons.If the instantons are large, they can be described by the classical self-dual Yang-Millsequations. If the instantons are small, the classical description of the instantons is nolonger good. However, it can be shown that, at
B
= 0, the instanton moduli space
M
instring theory coincides precisely with the classical instanton moduli space. The argumentfor this is presented in section 2.3. In particular,
M
has the small instanton singularitiesthat are familiar from classical Yang-Mills theory. The significance of these singularitiesin string theory is well known: they arise because an instanton can shrink to a point andescape as a
1-brane [39,40]. Now if one turns on a
B
-field, the argument that the stringyinstanton moduli space coincides with the classical instanton moduli space fails, as we willalso see in section 2.3. Indeed, the instanton moduli space must be corrected for nonzero
B
.The reason is that, at nonzero
B
(unless
B
is anti-self-dual) a configuration of a threebraneand a separated
1-brane is not BPS,
2
so an instanton on the threebrane cannot shrinkto a point and escape. The instanton moduli space must therefore be modified, for non-zero
B
, to eliminate the small instanton singularity. Adding a constant to the ADHMequations resolves the small instanton singularity [41], and since going to noncommutative
R
4
does add this constant [35], this strongly encourages us to believe that instantons withthe
B
-field should be described as instantons on a noncommutative space.This line of thought leads to an apparent paradox, however. Instantons come inall sizes, and however else they can be described, big instantons can surely be describedby conventional Yang-Mills theory, with the familiar stringy
α
corrections that are of higher dimension, but possess the standard Yang-Mills gauge invariance. The proposal in[35] implies, however, that the large instantons would be described by classical Yang-Millsequations with corrections coming from the noncommutativity of spacetime. For these two
1
One must recall that in the presence of a
D
-brane, a constant
B
-field cannot be gauged awayand can in fact be reinterpreted as a magnetic field on the brane.
2
This is shown in a footnote in section 4.2; the configurations in question are further studiedin section 5.
2

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