_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR __________________________________________________________________________ 2Gradient theoremIn word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of gradient of a scalar function along a path from '
' is the difference of thefunction values at '
' and '
( ) ( ) ( )
f dl f b f a
∇ • = −
Divergence theorem or Gauss theoremThis theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closedsurface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through anyvolume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically
A d A da
∇• = •
Curl theorem or Stokes theoremThis theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can bestated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the samevector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically
A da A dl
∇× • = •
These are useful in converting the Maxwell's equations from point formto integral form and vice versa.
They relate a surface integral to its corresponding volume integral andalso a line integral to its corresponding surface integral.Operator Del
i j k y z
∂ ∂ ∂∇ + +∂ ∂ ∂
It is a three dimensional, partial differential vector operator defined inCartesian system only. But it can be mapped into other co-ordinatesystems. Its units are
This operator can be applied over a scalar function to find its gradient,over a vector function to find either its divergence or curl
When applied to a position vector '
' joining origin with
x y z