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1 Vector Identities: Triple Products: ♠Ratings:

(0)|Views: 24,184|Likes: 190

Published by gouri_shanker21

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/28538193/1-Vector-Identities-Triple-Products

05/12/2014

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_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR __________________________________________________________________________ 1

Vector Identities:

Triple Products:

♠

( ) ( ) ( )

A B C B C A C A B

• × = • × = • ×

♠

( ) ( ) ( )

A B C B C A C A B

× × = • = •

Product rules:

♠

( ) ( ) ( )

fg f g g f

∇ = ∇ + ∇

♠

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

A B A B B A A B B A

∇ • = × ∇× + × ∇× + •∇ + •∇

♠

( ) ( ) ( )

fA f A A f

∇• = ∇• + • ∇

♠

( )

A B

∇• × =

( )

B A

∇×

( )

A B

− ∇×

♠

( ) ( ) ( )

fA f A A f

∇× = ∇× − × ∇

♠

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

A B B A A B A B B A

∇× × = •∇ − •∇ + ∇• − ∇•

Second derivatives:

♠

( )

0

A

∇• ∇× =

♠

( ) ( )

2

A A A

∇× ∇× =∇ ∇• −∇

♠

( )

2

f f

∇• ∇ =∇

♠

( )

0

f

∇× ∇ =

Fundamental theorems

:As is known, the volume is always enclosed by a closed surface and the surface isalways is enclosed by closed path. The path is a vector, is a directed curve, directionnormally being indicated with an arrow over the curve. The surface is also bydefinition a vector and, by definition, is always surrounded by a closed path. Thedirection of the surface at a point over it can be found by drawing a closed path,direction being same as that of the path surrounding the total surface, surroundingthat point. The direction pointed by the right hand thumb when wrapped by thefingers around the point gives the direction of the surface at that point. Theintegration of a vector over the closed surface can be related to the integration of thesame vector throughout the volume enclosed by the surface through the divergencetheorem. Similarly the integration of a vector along a closed path can be related tothe integration of the same vector over the surface enclosed by the path through Curltheorem.

_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR __________________________________________________________________________ 2Gradient theoremIn word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the tangential component of gradient of a scalar function along a path from '

a

' to'

b

' is the difference of thefunction values at '

a

' and '

b

' i.e.

( )

f a

and

( )

f b

. '

( ) ( ) ( )

ba

f dl f b f a

∇ • = −

∫

Divergence theorem or Gauss theoremThis theorem connects surface integral with volume integral. In word form it can be stated as 'the integral of the normal component of a vector over a closedsurface is equal to the integral of the divergence of the same vector through anyvolume enclosed by that surface.' Analytically

( )

A d A da

τ

∇• = •

∫ ∫

Curl theorem or Stokes theoremThis theorem connects line integral with surface integral. In word form it can bestated as 'the integral of the tangential component of a vector around a closed path is equal to the integral of the normal component of the curl of the samevector through any surface enclosed by the path.' Mathematically

( )

A da A dl

∇× • = •

∫ ∫

Significance:

•

These are useful in converting the Maxwell's equations from point formto integral form and vice versa.

•

They relate a surface integral to its corresponding volume integral andalso a line integral to its corresponding surface integral.Operator Del

i j k y z

∂ ∂ ∂∇ + +∂ ∂ ∂

•

It is a three dimensional, partial differential vector operator defined inCartesian system only. But it can be mapped into other co-ordinatesystems. Its units are

( )

1

mt

−

.

•

This operator can be applied over a scalar function to find its gradient,over a vector function to find either its divergence or curl

•

When applied to a position vector '

r

ra

' joining origin with

( )

,,

y z

or

( )

111

,,

y z

with

( )

,,

x y z

, then

_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Microwave Engineering Dr.PVS&RSR __________________________________________________________________________ 3

r

r a

∇ =

2

1

r

ar r

∇ = −

( )

( )

2,2

n nr

r a n r n

∇• = + ≠ −

( )

3

4,2

r n

πδ

= = −

( )

0

nr

r a

∇× =

Operator Laplacian

2222222

y z

∂ ∂ ∂∇ + +∂ ∂ ∂

•

It is a three dimensional, second order, partial differential scalar operator defined in Cartesian system only. But it can be mapped intoother co-ordinate systems. Its units are

( )

2

mt

−

.

•

This operator can be applied over a scalar function as well as over avector functionOperator d'Alembertian

222002

t

µ ε

∂∇ −∂

and Helmholtz operator

( )

2

k

∇•∇ +

:Both these operators are three dimensional partial differential operators. The first isnormally applied upon scalar functions.

Divergence. Curl And Gradient In Different Co-Ordinate Systems:

Let

123

ˆˆˆ

dl h duu h dvv h dww

= + +

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