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01 Mooring Practices

01 Mooring Practices

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Published by khaled Mazen

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Published by: khaled Mazen on Mar 18, 2010
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Loss Prevention Department, International House26 Creechurch Lane, London EC3A 5BAEmail: lossprevention.ukclub@thomasmiller.com
The UK Club’s inspectors frequently find that ships’ mooring arrangements are both ineffective and usedinefficiently, such that mooring lines are subject to unnecessary chafing.In some cases, moorings have resembled “knitting”, suggesting that ships’ personnel have given very littlethought to the vessel’s mooring arrangement and how best to utilise it. When moorings are being deployed,consideration should always be given to using the most suitable leads for ropes, taking into account shoresidefacilities.
A ship’s mooring system is designed to prevent the ship drifting away from the berth and hold her in place inrelation to that berth. The effectiveness of the moorings is dependent upon the configuration of the mooringlines. The security of a ship alongside is not something which happens of its own accord - it requires a goodunderstanding and use of the ship’s equipment. Considerable thought should be given to the configurationof the moorings, so that leads are effective and do not create sharp angles. Consideration should also begiven to the order in which lines are deployed, so as to maintain a safe working environment at all times.The effectiveness of any mooring line or wire is influenced by two angles:
The vertical angle the mooring line forms with the quay:
The horizontal angle the mooring line makes with the parallel side of the ship.The steeper the orientation of a mooring line, the less effective the line will be in resisting the horizontalloading put on it as the vessel moves in relation to the quay. Not all berths lend themselves to ideal leads,depending on ship type/size, and compromises have to be made, but the officer in charge of mooringoperations should always be looking for the best leads for his lines - which aren’t necessarily the shortest.
Technical Bulletin
Loss Prevention Department, International House26 Creechurch Lane, London EC3A 5BAEmail: lossprevention.ukclub@thomasmiller.com
A mooring arrangement should provide an efficient mooring pattern, facilitate safe line tendering and allowfor the safe and efficient handling of tug and fire wires.To prevent unnecessary dangers to ships’ personnel, and to prevent expensive mooring line damage, moor-ings should not be crossed over each other or be allowed to chafe against sharp objects.Personnel on duty should ensure that moorings are checked and tended at regular intervals and thatremedial action is taken to minimise or eliminate damage to moorings. Actions should be taken to preventchafing - ensuring that all rollers, deadmen, etc. are free to turn, wrapping canvas or old fire hose around amooring line at potential chafing areas and, in extreme cases, applying grease or other approved lubricantto the line, again to reduce the effect of chafing.Mooring lines should be made up correctly once the vessel is in position. When using synthetic ropes onlarge sets of bitts, use two round turns (no more) on the first post, then figure-eight round both (fig.1). Onsmaller diameter bitts, the two round turns should be around both posts (fig. 2).Fig.1 Large Diameter Bitts Fig.2 Small Diameter Bitts
Loss Prevention Department, International House26 Creechurch Lane, London EC3A 5BAEmail: lossprevention.ukclub@thomasmiller.com
When a mooring line is under tension (under load), it stretches. Energy is stored in the line in proportion tothe load and stretch. If the line were to part, this built-up energy would suddenly be released. The ends of the line whip back striking anything in their path. This whip effect is common to all lines. Even long wiresunder load can stretch sufficiently to part and whip back with considerable energy. Personnel should alwaysavoid standing in areas where a line is likely to whip back through should it part.Mooring lines should not be left on drum-ends - these are designed for warping, not holding the weight of aship for long periods and there is a risk of lines slipping or being thrown off drum ends when used in thismanner. Excessive turns should not be left on the working side of a split mooring winch - three turns(1 layer) are sufficient.Mooring line left on drum endSplit winch used correctlyThe strength of a line is dependent upon its condition - the condition of mooring lines in use should becontinually monitored, as lines are subject to wear and tear. Frayed ropes are weakened by a loss in ropediameter, damaged fibres / strands, etc. and can be dangerous to personnel working them. They should notbe used if at all possible, but replaced / repaired.An example of a mooring line in poor condition

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