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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

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Published by thecountessanna
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Published by: thecountessanna on Mar 19, 2010
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05/17/2012

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1/25/20101
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Comes from Greek wordsmeaning “split” and “mind”
People with schizophreniado NOT have split personalities
‘split’ refers to loss of touch with reality
“split mind” refers to the fact that people withschizophrenia are split off  from reality and can’t distinguish what is real from what is not real
Early writings indicating itspresence go back to the 12century B.C.
Not a single disorder
A syndrome with multiplevariations and multipleetiologies
The label given to a groupof psychoses in whichdeterioration of functioningis marked by severedistortion of thought,perception and mood; bybizarre behavior; and bysocial withdrawal
Equally frequency, maleshave earlier onset 
18 to 25 for men
26 to 45 for women
DESCRIPTION
 A group of mental disorders characterized by;
Psychotic features (hallucinations and delusions)
Disordered thought process
Disrupted interpersonal relationships
Disturbances in affect, mood, behavior, and thoughtprocesses occur
DSM IV Criteria
Schizophrenia
Schizophreniform
Schizoaffective
Delusional Disorder
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Schizophrenia induced by: Medical conditions;Medications/ drugs /other substance
DSM IV Criteria
Schizophrenia: psychosis that are persistentldisturbing for at least 6 months, with 1 monthof active-phase symptoms; age onset of lateadolescence or early adulthood
Schizophreniform: Symptoms of Schizophrenia with the duration of at least 1month but less than 6 months and social /occupational function may not be impaired.
Schizoaffective : Symptoms of bothSchizophrenia and a mood disorder lastingfor 1 month
DSM IV Criteria
Delusional Disorder
:
presence of one or morenonbizaare delusions that persist for 1 month ormore
Brief Psychotic Disorder: at least one of thesymptoms (hallucinations, delusions,disorganized speech or behavior disturbance) thatlast at least 1 day but less than 1 month; then areturn to the premorbid level of functioning
DSM IV Criteria
Shared Psychotic Disorder
:
a delusional disorderdeveloped when the person is involved in a closerelationship with an individual who hasdelusional psychotic disorder.
Psychotic Disorder due to medical condition orinduced by substance abuse : physiologic effect of medical condition; occurrences duringintoxication or withdrawal stages but can last for weeks
 
1/25/20102
EtiologyEtiologyEtiologyEtiology of of of of SchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophrenia
 
EtiologyEtiologyEtiologyEtiology of of of of SchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophrenia
 
EtiologyEtiologyEtiologyEtiology of of of of SchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophrenia
 
EtiologyEtiologyEtiologyEtiology of of of of SchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophrenia
 
The etiology and pathogenesis of schizophreniais not known
It is accepted, that the etiology is multifactorial:
Biological theories
Biochemical
Genetic
Perinatal Risks
Neurostructural
Psychological theories
Social theories
THEORIES
BIOLOGICAL
BIOCHEMICAL
DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS
Serotonin and glutamate
NEUROSTRUCTURAL
INCREASED VBR, BRAIN ATROPHY, DECREASEDCREBRAL BLOOD FLOW 
GENETIC
IDENTICAL TWINS, 1
ST
DEGREE RELATIVES
PERINATAL RISK FACTORS
EXPOSURE TO VIRUS, MINOR MALFORMATIONS,COMPLICATIONS DURING LABOR AND PREGANCY,POVERTY 
GeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGeneticsGenetics
Idea that it is geneticgoes back at least as far as the 18
th
century
By the 19
th
century,genetic hypothesiswas endorsed byKraepelin, Bleuler, andmany other experts onschizophrenia.
RiskRiskRiskRisk FactorFactorFactorFactorRiskRiskRiskRisk FactorFactorFactorFactorRiskRiskRiskRisk FactorFactorFactorFactorRiskRiskRiskRisk FactorFactorFactorFactor
PerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisksPerinatalRisks
There are also evidences that perinatalconditions may be an indicator of the risk of having schizophrenia.
2
nd
trimester (4-6 months) –brain development 
Conditions that could result in brain injury are:
Maternal starvation; poor nutrition anemia
Obstetric complications
Fetal hypoxia
Maternal alcohol or drug abuse
Toxin exposure or viral infection –influenza virus
Incidence of birth trauma and injury
BiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemical
:
:
:
:
BiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemical
:
:
:
:
DopamineDopamineDopamineDopamine HypothesisHypothesisHypothesisHypothesisDopamineDopamineDopamineDopamine HypothesisHypothesisHypothesisHypothesis
BiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemical
:
:
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BiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemicalBiochemical
:
:
:
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DopamineDopamineDopamineDopamine HypothesisHypothesisHypothesisHypothesisDopamineDopamineDopamineDopamine HypothesisHypothesisHypothesisHypothesis
Overactivityof dopamine neurons in themesolimbicpathway may cause positivesymptoms.
Underactivityof dopamine neurons in themesocorticalpathway in the prefrontalcortex may cause negative symptoms

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