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APUSH, Chapter Nineteen Terms, Drifting Toward Disunion

APUSH, Chapter Nineteen Terms, Drifting Toward Disunion

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Published by Julie
Chapter Nineteen Terms, American Pageant.
Chapter Nineteen Terms, American Pageant.

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Published by: Julie on Mar 19, 2010
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Chapter Nineteen: Drifting Toward Disunion 
Harriet Beecher StoweHarriet Beecher StoweHarriet Beecher StoweHarriet Beecher StoweAuthor of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, had never witnessed slavery first hand, but had seen it during avisit to Kentucky and had lived for many years in Ohio, where the Underground Railroad wasactiveAbraham Lincoln, “So you’re the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war.” 
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin 
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, extremely popular novel meant to awaken sympathy inthe North for the plight of slaves, relied on powerful imagery and appealing to emotionSeveral hundred thousand copies sold in the first year, translated into many languages, put onthe stage in “Tom shows.” Popularity in Britain and France would create support for the North during the Civil War, asthe British and French governments were reluctant to support the South when the commonpeople were more sympathetic with the North.Hinton Helper Hinton Helper Hinton Helper Hinton Helper Nonaristocratic white from North Carolina, hated both slavery and African-Americans,attacking slavery from an economic standpoint, arguing that the nonslaveholding whiteswere the ones who suffered the most from slavery.Unable to find a publisher in the South, but did find one in the North.
The Impending Crisis of the South The Impending Crisis of the South The Impending Crisis of the South The Impending Crisis of the South 
 Banned in the South, where book-burning parties were held—had little effect on the poorer whites who were its intended audienceDistributed as campaign literature in the North by RepublicansNew England Emigrant Aid CompanyNew England Emigrant Aid CompanyNew England Emigrant Aid CompanyNew England Emigrant Aid CompanyAntislavery organization, northern abolitionists/free-soilers, sent about two thousand peopleto Kansas Territory in an attempt to make Kansas a free state under popular sovereignty.People carried new Sharps rifles (“Beecher’s Bibles” after Rev. Henry Ward Beecher)“Border Ruffians” “Border Ruffians” “Border Ruffians” “Border Ruffians” In 1855, on the day the elections in Kansas were to be held to determine Kansas’ status,proslavery “border ruffians” came in from Mississippi to voteSlavery supporters triumphed, set up puppet government at Shawnee MissionIn response, Free-Soilers established extralegal regime in Topeka
Chapter Nineteen: Drifting Toward Disunion 
 John Brown John Brown John Brown John BrownObsessively dedicated to the abolitionist cause, moved to Kansas from Ohio after beinginvolved in suspicious activities, such as horse stealing.In response to the burning of the free-soil town of Lawrence, he led a band of followers toPottawatomie Creek “Old Brown” of Osawatomie, later involved at Harpers FerryPottawatomie Creek Pottawatomie Creek Pottawatomie Creek Pottawatomie Creek May 1856—John Brown and followers literally hacked to pieces five men presumed to be pro-slavery at Pottawatomie Creek Increased tensions between proslavery forces and antislavery forcesLecompton ConstitutionLecompton ConstitutionLecompton ConstitutionLecompton ConstitutionIn 1857, Kansas had enough people (mostly free-soilers) to apply for statehood.Proslavery forces, which were then in control, created the Lecompton Constitution—peoplewere not allowed to vote for or against the constitution as a whole, but for the constitutioneither “with slavery” or “with no slavery.” The catch—even if the vote was “with no slavery,” one of the provisions of the constitutionwould protect the owners of slaves already in Kansas.Infuriated free-soilers boycotted the polls, leading to the proslaveryites approving theconstitution with slavery in 1857.Buchanan supported the Lecompton Constitution, but Senator Douglas fought for fairness intrue popular sovereignty, leading to a compromise where the entire Constitution was put to apopular vote.Free-soil voters then defeated the Lecompton Constitution.“Bleeding” Kansas“Bleeding” Kansas“Bleeding” Kansas“Bleeding” KansasRefers to the conflicts between free-soilers and proslaveryites.Examples include the burning of free-soil Lawrence and the attack on Pottawatomie Creek by John Brown.Sumner Sumner Sumner Sumner----Brooks Incident Brooks Incident Brooks Incident Brooks Incident Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered an impassioned speech to Congress,entitled “The Crime Against Kansas” in which he personally insulted Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina.Butler’s nephew, Representative Preston Brooks from South Carolina, responded byapproaching Sumner on May 22, 1856, and beating him with a cane until it broke.
Chapter Nineteen: Drifting Toward Disunion 
Brooks became extremely popular in the South and was promptly reelected, while Sumner was forced to leave his seat for three and a half years, which enraged the North.Dred Scott v. SanfordDred Scott v. SanfordDred Scott v. SanfordDred Scott v. SanfordDred Scott, a slave, sued for freedom on the basis of his residence on free soil.Supreme Court declared that Dred Scott was a black slave and not a citizen, hence, he couldnot sue in federal courts.Under the leadership of Chief Justice Taney from Maryland, the judgment went even further,decreeing that because a slave was private property, he or she could be taken into anyterritory and legally held there in slavery, as per the Fifth amendment, which forbadeCongress to deprive people of property without due process.Court went further, ruling that the Missouri Compromise (which had already been repealedby the Kansas-Nebraska Act) had been unconstitutional. Congress had no power to banslavery from the territories, despite what territorial legislatures desired.Tensions increased as Republicans refused to acknowledge the Supreme Court ruling. TheDemocratic Party was even more divided, as northern Democrats sided with Republicans.Panic of 1857Panic of 1857Panic of 1857Panic of 1857Causes included the influx of California gold (which inflated currency), overproduction of  grain, and over-speculation in Western lands and railroads.Over five thousand businesses failed within a year.Little effect in South, with panic conditions serving as evidence to them that the Northern wayof manufacturing was flawed, and that Southern economic principles were superior North was heavily affected, leading to more people supporting the Homestead Act of 1860.Led to Northern support of higher tariff rates to protect industry. Several months before,Congress enacted Tariff of 1857 in response to pressure from South, lowering duties to 20%.Northern manufacturers blamed the low tariff for the Panic.Panic led to the two main Republican issues in the 1860 election—farms for the farmless,protection for the unprotected.Increased tension between the North and the South, as each blamed the other for the Panic.Homestead Act of 186Homestead Act of 186Homestead Act of 186Homestead Act of 1860000Government previously sold the land for revenue, but argument became that acreage shouldbe given to pioneers as a reward for risking their lives to develop the land.Opposition: Eastern industrialists did not want their underpaid workers to move to the West.South knew that slaveholding plantations needed more than 160 acres, so land would be filledup by free-soilers, which would imbalance political representation.Act passed—public lands available at 25¢ an acre, but then vetoed by Buchanan.

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