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Led

Led

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Published by ANUJ
led is future of lighting
led is future of lighting

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: ANUJ on Mar 19, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/25/2012

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Light-emitting diode
.
Light-emitting diode
Red, green and blue LEDs of the 5mm type
Type
Working principle
Invented
Electronic symbolPin configuration
A
light-emitting diode
(
LED
) (pronounced
) is asemiconductor light source.LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for  lighting.
 
Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962,
early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across thevisible, ultravioletand infraredwavelengths, with very high brightness.The LED is based on thesemiconductor diode.When a diode is forward biased (switched on),electrons are able torecombinewithholeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of  photons. This effect is calledelectroluminescenceand the color  of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by theenergy gapof thesemiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm
2
), and integrated opticalcomponents are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.
 LEDs presentmanyadvantagesover incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durabilityand reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current  and heat managementthan traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional lightsources inautomotive lighting(particularlyindicators
 
) and intraffic signals. Airbususes LED lighting in their A320 Enhancedsince 2007, and Boeing plans its use in the787.  The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to bedeveloped, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communicationstechnology.
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[edit] History
[edit] Discoveries and early devices
Green electroluminescence from a point contact on a crystal of  SiCrecreatesH. J. Round's original experiment from 1907.Electroluminescencewas discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter  H. J. Roundof  Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbideand acat's-whisker detector .
RussianOleg Vladimirovich Losevindependently reported on the creation of a LED in 1927.
His research was distributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, but no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.
Rubin Braunstein of theRadio Corporation of Americareported on infrared emission fromgallium arsenide  (GaAs) and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission

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