in the main dipoles is increased in 20 min up to 8.3 T, meanwhile the RF cavitiesaccelerate each beam up to 7 TeV.The LHC is then switched to collition mode, where the beams are tightly focusedand made to collide almost head–on to produce interesting events.After 2-10 hours of beam collitions, the beam itself is exhausted, and it isdumped.The machine is designed to withstand some 20 000 such cycles in 20 year’slifetime, as well as 20-30 full thermal cycles.(1)
How to detect the events ?
The two largest of the LHC detectors, calledATLAS and CMS, also use giant super-conducting magnets to improve sensitivity.These magnets have record characteristics,too. One is the largest size super-conducting magnet in the world, and theother is the most powerful, in terms of stored energy in a single circuit.(1)
The superconducting magnets
Superconductivity plays a fundamental role, because it allows magnetic fields inexcess of 8 T to be reached, combined with the curvature radius of the dipoles,this field enables proton beams to reach energies of 7TeV, almost an order of magnitude larger than previous accelerators. The LHC relies on 1734 largemagnets, including the accelerator backbone, the 1232 main dipoles (15 m longand 30 tonnes) and 7724 smaller size superconducting corrector magnets.The LHC magnet system, while still making use of the well-proven technologybased on NbTi Rutherford cables, cool the magnets to a temperature below 4.3K, using superfluid helium (130 Tonnes) and operates at fields above 8 T. Inaddition, space limitations in the tunnel and the need to keep costs down haveled to the adoption of the “two in one” or “twin-bore” design for almost all of theLHC superconducting magnets. This design accomodates the windings for thetwo beam channels in a common cold mass and cryostar, with magnetic fluxcirculating in the opposite sense through the two channels. This makes themagnet structure complicated, especially for the dipoles, for which the separationof the two beam channels is small enough that they are coupled bothmagnetically and mechanically
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