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BIO 110 Notes Ch. 11

BIO 110 Notes Ch. 11

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CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System (CNS)
I.
PROTECTION OF THE CNS
The brain and spinal cord are protected (surrounded) by bones, membranes, and fluid.A.
Bones
 1.The brain is encased by eight
skull bones
(i.e. cranium name the eight bones)2.The spinal cord is encased by 26 bones that make up the vertebral columnB.
Meninges
The membranes around the brain and spinal cord are called
"meninges"
three distinct layers.1.Brain:See Figure 11.1, page 388.a.
Dura mater
("white" in Fig 11.1):
o
outermost membrane that is attached to the inner periosteum of theskull
o
tough, white fibrous CT
o
contains many blood vessels & nerves
o
 Note: DM splits into two layers where it encloses the dural sinuses (thatcollect venous blood from the brain). b.
Arachnoid Mater
("violet" in Fig 11.1):
o
middle layer 
o
thin net-like membrane.
o
Beneath the arachnoid mater lies a wide space called the
sub-arachnoid space
.This space is filled with
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
and serves as acushion for the brain.c.
Pia Mater
("salmon" in Fig 11.1):
o
inner layer that clings to brain surface
o
very thin delicate CT
o
many nerves & blood vessels = nourishment
o
dips into grooves & contours.*See green boxes on page 389 concerning subdural hematoma & meningitis.2.
Spinal cord
:See Fig 11.2, page 389.a.Note that the dura mater is
not
attached to bone of the vertebra (as in the brainwhere it is attached to the skull). b.The space between the dura mater and the bone is called the
epidural space
andis filled with loose CT and fat.c.CSF fills the subarachnoid space and central canal.
 
CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System (CNS)
C.
Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
 1.In addition to filling the subarachnoid space, CSF fills the
ventricles
(interconnectedcavities) within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem.See Figure 11.3, page 390.2.The Ventricles:a.are continuous with central canal of spinal cord b.are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)c.are lined by ependymal cells (remember this neuroglial cell in CNS?)3.
Secretion and Circulation of CSF
See Figure 11.4, page 391.a.CSF is secreted by specialized capillaries in
choroid plexuses
into the lateralventricles
(ventricles 1 & 2
) b.CSF circulates down into the
3rd & then 4th ventricle
and then into either:
o
the
central canal
of spinal cord
o
the
subarachnoid space
of meninges.c.CSF is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream through
arachnoid granulations
that project into
dural sinuses.
d.CSF movement is aided by cilia of ependymal cells.4.
CSF
a.
Total volume
in above spaces = 150 mL.
o
About 1 liter is secreted daily to replenish the circulating 150 ml every3-4 hours. b.
Functions
:
o
mechanical protection (i.e. cushion)
o
chemical protection (i.e. ions, hormones)*See CA 11.1, page 392 concerning CSF pressure.II.
THE SPINAL CORD
The
spinal cord
is a nerve column that passes downward from brain into the vertebral canal. Recall that itis part of the CNS.
Spinal nerves
extend to/from the spinal cord and are part of the PNS.A.
Structure of the Spinal Cord:
Longitudinal
 
See Fig 11.5, page 393.1.Length = about 17 inchesa.Start =
foramen magnum
 b.End = tapers to point (
conus medullaris)
and terminates near the intervertebraldisc that separates the 1st - 2nd lumbar 
(L
1
-L
2
)
vertebra.2.Contains
31 segments
(and therefore gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves).3.Note cervical and lumbar enlargements.4.Note
cauda equina
(“horse’s tail”) in which the lower lumbar and sacral nerves traveldownward (i.e. lower spinal nerves must “chase” their points of exit).5.Note
filum terminale
that represents distal portion of the tail (pia mater).B.
Structure of the Spinal Cord: Cross-Sectional
See Figure 11.6, page 394.A cross-section of the spinal cord resembles a butterfly with its wings outspread (gray matter)surrounded by white matter.1.
Gray matter
or "butterfly" = bundles of (interneuron) cell bodies:a.
posterior (dorsal) horns
, b.
lateral horns
, andc.
anterior (ventral) horns
.2.Note location of:a.
central canal
(lined by ependymal cells), b.
gray commissure
,c.
anterior median fissure
,d.
posterior median sulcus
.
 
CHAPTER 11: NERVOUS SYSTEM II: DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System (CNS)
3.
White matter
= myelinated (interneuron) axons:a.Locations:
o
posterior
(dorsal)
 
funiculi or 
white column
,
o
lateral
funiculi or 
white column
, and
o
anterior
(ventral) funiculi or 
white column.
4.Other Important Features:a.ventral root b.dorsal root
o
dorsal root ganglion (DRG).1.Ganglion = a bundle of cell bodies outside the CNS2.DRG contains the cell bodies of sensory (afferent) neurons bringing impulses to the CNS.c.The fusion of the dorsal and ventral roots designates the beginning of the spinalnerve which then passes through its intervertebral foramen.5.Summary sketch:C.
Functions of the Spinal CordNerve Pathway
= the route traveled by a nerve impulse through the nervous system.
1.
Reflex arc
= the simplest demonstration of a nerve pathwaySee Figure 11.7, page 395.a.involves 2-3 neurons b.involuntary responsec.does not involve the braind.Examples include:
o
knee-jerk or patellar reflex (Fig 11.8, page 396)
o
withdrawal (Fig 11.9, page 396 & Fig 11.10, page 397)
o
sneezing
o
 blinking2.Components of a Reflex arc:See Table 11.2, page 398.a.A receptor, which reacts to a stimulus b.A sensory neuron, that conducts the afferent (sensory) impulses to the CNSc.The integration center, consisting of one to several synapses in the CNSd.A motor neuron, that conducts the efferent (motor) impulses from the CNSto an effector e.An effector, the muscle fibers or glands that respond to the motor impulse by contracting or secreting a hormone.3.Uses of Reflexes: See Clinical Application 11.2, page 398.a.to insure proper transmission of a NI from sensory receptor to effector  b.to prevent tissue damage.D.
Ascending and Descending Tracts
1.The white matter of the spinal cord represents the location of our major nerve pathwayscalled "
nerve tracts".
a.
provide a 2-way system of communication
:See Figures 11.11-11.13, pages 399-400 and Table 11.3, page 401.
o
In general,
ascending tracts
are located in the
posterior (dorsal)columns
and conduct
sensory (afferent) impulses
from body parts to brain

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