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Ch3- Drainage

Ch3- Drainage

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Published by Hussain
Contemporary India- drainage systems, drainage patterns-
NCERT text book- class IX --Social science
Contemporary India- drainage systems, drainage patterns-
NCERT text book- class IX --Social science

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Published by: Hussain on Mar 20, 2010
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05/27/2013

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W  r   D  i  v  i  d  
  S  r e a  mS  r e a  mB
Figure 3.1 : Water Divide 
D
RAINAGE
 T 
he term
drainage 
describes the river system of an area. Look at the physicalmap. You will notice that small streamsflowing from different directions come together to form the main river, which ultimately drainsinto a large water body such as a lake or a sea or an ocean. The area drained by a single river system is called a 
drainage basin 
. A closer observation on a map will indicate that any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland,separates two drainage basins. Such an uplandis known as a 
water divide 
 
(Figure 3.1).
 The world’s largest drainage basin is of the Nile river in Egypt 
Figure 3.2 : A Gorge 
subcontinent. Accordingly, the Indian riversare divided into two major groups:the Himalayan rivers; andthe Peninsular rivers. Apart from originating from the two major physiographic regions of India, the Himalayanand the Peninsular rivers are different fromeach other in many ways. Most of theHimalayan rivers are
perennial
.
 
It meansthat they have water throughout the year. These rivers receive water from rain as wellas from melted snow from the lofty mountains. The two major Himalayan rivers,the Indus and the Brahmaputra originatefrom the north of the mountain ranges. They have cut through the mountains makinggorges. The Himalayan rivers have longcourses from their source to the sea. They perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand. In the middle and the lower courses,these rivers form meanders, oxbow lakes, andmany other depositional features in their 
3
• Which river has the largest basin in India?
D
RAINAGE 
S
 YSTEMS
 
IN
I
NDIA 
 The drainage systems of India are mainly controlled by the broad relief features of the
 
18CONTEMPORARY INDIA 
floodplains. They also have well-developeddeltas (Figure 3.3). A large number of the Peninsular rivers areseasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall.During the dry season, even the large rivershave reduced flow of water in their channels. The Peninsular rivers have shorter andshallower courses as compared to their Himalayan counterparts. However, some of them originate in the central highlands and flow towards the west. Can you identify two suchlarge rivers? Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal.
 The Himalayan Rivers
 The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, theGanga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers arelong, and are joined by many large andimportant tributaries. A river alongwith itstributaries may be called a 
river system
.
The Indus River System 
 The river Indus rises in Tibet, near LakeMansarowar. Flowing west, it enters India in theLadakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. It formsa picturesque gorge in this part. Severaltributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region. The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit andemerges from the mountains at Attock. TheSatluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan. Beyond this, the Indusflows southwards eventually reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The Indus plainhas a very gentle slope. With a total length of 2900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers
Source of River Upper CourseMiddle CourseOx-Bow LakeLower CourseMeander Delta 
Figure 3.3 : Some Features Made by Rivers 
Drainage Patterns
 The streams within a drainage basin formcertain patterns, depending on the slopeof land, underlying rock structure as wellas the climatic conditions of the area. These are
dendritic
,
trellis
,
rectangular
,and
radial
patterns. The dendritic patterndevelops where the river channel followsthe slope of the terrain. The stream withits tributaries resembles the branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic. A river  joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles, develops a trellis pattern. A trellis drainage pattern develops wherehard and soft rocks exist parallel to eachother. A rectangular drainage patterndevelops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. A combination of several patterns may be found in the same drainage basin.
 
DRAINAGE 19
Figure 3.4 : Major Rivers and Lakes 

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