floodplains. They also have well-developeddeltas (Figure 3.3). A large number of the Peninsular rivers areseasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall.During the dry season, even the large rivershave reduced flow of water in their channels. The Peninsular rivers have shorter andshallower courses as compared to their Himalayan counterparts. However, some of them originate in the central highlands and flow towards the west. Can you identify two suchlarge rivers? Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal.
The Himalayan Rivers
The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, theGanga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers arelong, and are joined by many large andimportant tributaries. A river alongwith itstributaries may be called a
The Indus River System
The river Indus rises in Tibet, near LakeMansarowar. Flowing west, it enters India in theLadakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. It formsa picturesque gorge in this part. Severaltributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region. The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit andemerges from the mountains at Attock. TheSatluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan. Beyond this, the Indusflows southwards eventually reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The Indus plainhas a very gentle slope. With a total length of 2900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers
Source of River Upper CourseMiddle CourseOx-Bow LakeLower CourseMeander Delta
Figure 3.3 : Some Features Made by Rivers
The streams within a drainage basin formcertain patterns, depending on the slopeof land, underlying rock structure as wellas the climatic conditions of the area. These are
patterns. The dendritic patterndevelops where the river channel followsthe slope of the terrain. The stream withits tributaries resembles the branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic. A river joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles, develops a trellis pattern. A trellis drainage pattern develops wherehard and soft rocks exist parallel to eachother. A rectangular drainage patterndevelops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. A combination of several patterns may be found in the same drainage basin.