is walking to work which is the case with Mumbai’s55% people, then Mumbai is essentially a very smallcity. It doesn’t matter i 16 – 20 million people livehere. Secondly, average commuting time in Mumbaiis 28 minutes, which is less than Mexico city, Johan-nesburg or other urban age cities. Tus the majorconcern or this city is that planners are ignoring thewalking trips, even when planning or public trans-port. Tis is because every public transport trip isrst a pedestrian trip. It is obvious that one is ignor-ing the majority o pedestrian users while planningmainly or the remaining 40% people who travel intrains and buses combined, also termed as captive us-ers, who have no choice but to travel in these modes.Adding to this Mr. Sudhir Badami, Member o theRoad Monitoring Committee or Potholes, said thatthe mindset o authorities is that they don’t believethat ootpaths are important. It may be a long timebeore the city can make walking comortable.For whatever reasons, even today Mumbai can betermed as an environmentally riendly, transportparadise where the majority o people walk or movein public transport and the dependence on privatemodes is very small. In Mumbai since people stay close to their work, they have zero carbon emissionsand probably can demand carbon credits or ourslums. Street crimes in Indian cities is very low com-pared to cities like Los Angeles. From a sociologicalpoint o view, such phenomenon occurs when one al-lows inclusive cities to come up not by planning, butby deying ormal planning process as in the case o Mumbai or other Indian cities.Pro. Dinesh Mohan rom II Delhi said that it ap-pears that migration in itsel is not the problem whenan I proessional migrates rom Silicon Valley toMumbai. So ‘who migrates’ is the issue, with morelikely the solutions producing the problems or thiscity. Tese solutions are high speed public transportto bring people into South Mumbai and employ themin extensive construction activity throughout thecity. So it is not that Mumbai Suburban trains thathave caused the problems or the city? Te concept o CBDs (Central Business District) which exists only inMumbai, has a lot to contribute to the transport situ-ation in the present context. CBDs require the trans-portation system to readily bring people into the city centre. I there are no CBDs, the whole concept o transport changes. Mumbai certainly doesn’t needhigh capacity, ast transportation system but ratherneeds to create inrastructure or people walking, bi-cycling and medium capacity surace systems whichare also low cost.
Emerging Service Sectors: Is Labour Market pre-pared for the transition?
Pro. Sharit Bhowmik rom ISS said that the compo-sition o its labour orce changed dramatically in lastew decades in Mumbai. In 1961 as per census, 65% o the population worked in the ormal sector. By 1991,the trend had reversed – 35% working in the ormalsector and 65% in the inormal sector. By 2001, morethan 70% people worked in the inormal sector in thecity. Tis meant insecure employment or a majority o the people with low wages and undened work-ing hours. Tis inormal labour is unregulated by any labour laws. Globalisation seems to be pushing thetrend o increasing inormal employment, to keep thelabor costs cheap. Te inormal sector is well reect-ed in the housing patterns in the city. As per hous-ing survey conducted by State department, Bureauo Economics and Statistics in 2000, 73% o urbanhouseholds lived in a one room house, 18% in 2 roomsand the remaining 9% in 3 or more room houses. Fiveyears earlier, only 69% population lived in 1 roomhouses. Tus the quality o the housing stock in thecity is directly related to the employment and wageso the people inhabiting the city. Te prole o peopleworking in the inormal economy matches up withlow-cost slum housing they preer. And conversely,these people are able to provide cheap labour to thethriving market, only because o their cheap housing,mostly sucing with a walking trip to work. So it willnot be a misnomer to say that slums are actually pro-lierating, to counter the economies o urban marketand labour.Mumbai is also a city where anyone can nd a job.Te organised employment has moved rom the mainpart o Greater Mumbai to outside Mumbai and areasesp. the Tane – Belapur belt. Tis is evident rom thetrain trips that allegedly increased rom city suburbsto distant suburbs upwards rather rom city suburbsto the downtown area. With the breakdown o themills, the slums have also shifed upwards to the sub-urbs and outskirts o Mumbai.3