1.1 What is a dispute?
Academically speaking, industrial dispute refers to any conflictbetween employees and employers, between employers andemployers and between employees and employees.
But in reality, dispute is understood as the conflict between employeesand employers.
There are three types of Disputes :
According to Industrial Dispute Act, 1947, Industrial dispute meansany dispute or difference between employers and employers, orbetween employers and workmen, or between workmen and workmen,which is connected with the employment or non-employment or termsof employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.
1.2 Causes of Industrial Disputes
Some of the prominent causes of industrial disputes may be listed thus:
The list here includes disputes over wages, allowances,bonus, benefits, working, condition, unjust dismissals, retrenchment of workers, methods of job evaluation, changes in methods of production, non-implement of awards of tribunals, etc. The National Commission on Labourremarked “though on majority of occasions industrial disputes were based onclaims pertaining to the terms and condition of employment, sometimeseconomic issues of a general character dominated and, on occasion, purelymotives”.
Workers protested against the introduction of rationalization, automation, computerization (e.g., Bank unions oppose thismove even now) on various occasion, fearing large scale retrenchment.2 |Page