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Agilent - Fundamentals of RF and microwave power measurings

Agilent - Fundamentals of RF and microwave power measurings

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Published by: nhdkhang on May 03, 2008
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10/11/2012

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Application Note 64-1C
AgilentFundamentals of RF andMicrowave Power Measurements
Classic application note onpower measurementsNewly revised and updated
 
Table of Contents
I.Introduction
The importance of power.................................................................................................................................5 A brief history of power measurement.........................................................................................................6 A history of peak power measurements........................................................................................................7
II.Power Measurement
Units and definitions........................................................................................................................................9IEEE video pulse standards adapted for microwave pulses......................................................................13Peak power waveform definitions..................................................................................................................14New power sensors and meters for pulsed and complex modulation…...................................................15Three methods of sensing power ...................................................................................................................15Key power sensor parameters .......................................................................................................................16The hierarchy of power measurement, national standards and traceability .........................................17
III.Thermistor Sensors and Instrumentation
Thermistor sensors ..........................................................................................................................................19Coaxial thermistor sensors ............................................................................................................................20Waveguide thermistor sensors........................................................................................................................20Bridges, from Wheatstone to dual-compensated DC types .......................................................................20Thermistors as power transfer standards.....................................................................................................22Other DC-substitution meters.........................................................................................................................22Some measurement considerations for power sensor comparisons.........................................................23Typical sensor comparison system................................................................................................................23Network analyzer source system....................................................................................................................24NIST 6-port calibration system.......................................................................................................................25
IV.Thermocouple Sensors and Instrumentation
Principles of thermocouples ..........................................................................................................................26The thermocouple sensor................................................................................................................................27Power meters for thermocouple sensors.......................................................................................................31Reference oscillator..........................................................................................................................................33EPM series power meters................................................................................................................................33
V.Diode Sensors and Instrumentation
Diode detector principles................................................................................................................................35Using diodes for sensing power......................................................................................................................37Wide-dynamic-range CW-only power sensors..............................................................................................39Wide-dynamic-range average power sensors................................................................................................40 A new versatile power meter to exploit 90 dB range sensors...................................................................42Traceable power reference..............................................................................................................................44Signal waveform effects on the measurement uncertainty of diode sensors ........................................45
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VI.Peak and Average Diode Sensors and Instrumentation
Pulsed formats................................................................................................................................................48Complex modulation wireless signals.........................................................................................................49Other formats..................................................................................................................................................50Peak and average power sensing.................................................................................................................51EPM-P series power meters..........................................................................................................................53Computation power........................................................................................................................................55Bandwidth considerations............................................................................................................................56 Versatile user interface..................................................................................................................................57
VII.Measurement Uncertainty
 An international guide to the expression of uncertainties.....................................................................58Power transfer, generators and loads ........................................................................................................59RF circuit descriptions..................................................................................................................................59Reflection coefficient ....................................................................................................................................61Signal flowgraph visualization.....................................................................................................................62Mismatch uncertainty....................................................................................................................................66Mismatch loss and mismatch gain...............................................................................................................67Other sensor uncertainties...........................................................................................................................67Calibration factor ..........................................................................................................................................68Power meter instrumentation uncertainties ............................................................................................69Calculating total uncertainty........................................................................................................................71Power measurement equation .....................................................................................................................72Worst case uncertainty..................................................................................................................................74RSS uncertainty..............................................................................................................................................75New method of combining power meter uncertainties ...........................................................................76Power measurement model for ISO process..............................................................................................77Standard uncertainty of mismatch model.................................................................................................79Example of calculation of uncertainty using ISO model.........................................................................80
VIII.Power Measurement Instrumentation Compared
 Accuracy vs. power level...............................................................................................................................84Frequency range and SWR (reflection coefficient)..................................................................................86Speed of response..........................................................................................................................................87 Automated power measurement .................................................................................................................88Susceptibility to overload..............................................................................................................................89Signal waveform effects.................................................................................................................................90 An applications overview of Agilent sensors.............................................................................................90 A capabilities overview of Agilent sensors and power meters...............................................................91
Glossary and List of Symbols
.................................................................................................................94
Pulse terms and definitions, figure 2-5, reprinted from IEEE STD 194-1977 and ANSI/IEEE STD 181-1977, Copyright © 1977 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,Inc. The IEEE disclaims any responsibility or liability resulting from the placement and use in this publication. Information is reprinted with the permission of the IEEE.
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