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Torture: historians against the war: Disbar Torture Lawyers

Torture: historians against the war: Disbar Torture Lawyers

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Torture, American Style
 Publication #3 of Historians Against the War (HAW)
 Reprinted with new Foreword 2006 
Contents:
Introduction:
Margaret Power 
 The American Prison and the Normalization of Torture:
 H. Bruce Franklin
  Nicaragua: A Tortured Nation:
 Richard Grossman
 The Tiger Cages of Con Son:
 Don Luce
 Guantánamo Prison:
 Jane Franklin
 Torture of Prisoners in U.S. Custody:
Marjorie Cohn
 The Abu Ghraib Scandal and the U.S. Occupation of Iraq:
 John Cox
 
 
ii
Foreword, May 2006
 By John Cox
We compiled this pamphlet two years ago in response to the shocking revela-tions from Abu Ghraib.
Torture, American Style
places those crimes in historicalcontext, undermining the claims of President Bush and many others that what tran-spired at Abu Ghraib was an aberration. This brief collection shows that Abu Ghraibis not only consistent with U.S. policy in Iraq, but also with U.S. policy in much of the world in recent decades.Did the initial outrage over Abu Ghraib make U.S. officials reconsider the useof torture, or to at least seriously investigate and prosecute the Abu Ghraib perpetra-tors? It would be comforting if we could answer in the affirmative, but we cannot. Afew low-ranking soldiers were disciplined; additional photos and video footage of tor-ture were suppressed; and perfunctory Senate hearings neglected to investigate thechain of command.Since the publication of 
Torture, American Style
, numerous reports have re-vealed that the United States has extended its use of torture in various, innovativeways: from the practice of “extraordinary rendition” (whereby terrorism suspects areshipped by the U.S. to countries such as Egypt, Uzbekistan, and Yemen where theycan be tortured with impunity) to a network of CIA prisons in various European andAsian countries, uncovered in a Pulitzer Prize-winning series in the
Washington Post 
 last fall. But the U.S. government has not “outsourced” all its illicit practices. In fla-grant disregard for international law and opinion the United States maintains a prisoncamp in Guantánamo, Cuba, as well as lesser-known camps in Afghanistan and Iraq,in which prisoners – who in some cases have been held for nearly five years withoutcharges – are abused and tortured. Rather than being embarrassed by persistent con-demnations from various quarters, the U.S. administration has forcefully proclaimedits right to torture in the pursuit of its open-ended “War on Terror.”Yet Abu Ghraib remains a potent symbol, in the Middle East and around theworld, of American policy and imperial ambition. The disclosures from Abu Ghraiband elsewhere have put a harsh spotlight on the illegal actions of U.S. authorities,leading to greater international scrutiny as well as greater defensiveness on the part of the Bush Administration. It is significant that a delegation of twenty-five high-ranking U.S. officials was subjected to extended questioning in early May 2006 bythe UN’s Committee Against Torture, and even compelled to distance itself from pre-vious Administration justifications. Even more worrisome for the Bush Administra-tion, only a few days later the British attorney general condemned the Guantánamo prison as a “symbol of injustice” and called for it to be closed. Nevertheless, much of the public debate on these issues has revolved aroundthe notion that the use of torture represents a departure from the past. The essays col-lected here show convincingly that this is not the case. On behalf of HistoriansAgainst the War, we hope that this pamphlet will provide historical context to theseissues and move people to action to combat these egregious human-rights violations.
 
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Introduction
 By Margaret Power 
When pictures of Iraqi prisoners tortured and abused by U.S. troops appeared on televi-sion screens and in newspapers across the country, many Americans recoiled in horror,disgust, and shock. How could members of the U.S. military carry out such heinous actsagainst the people we had supposedly come to liberate? Compounding this tragic irony isthe fact that the Bush administration had repeatedly offered Sadaam Hussein’s use of tor-ture against the Iraqi people as one of the many pretexts presented by the U.S. govern-ment to try and justify its invasion of Iraq.
Many in this country, especially officials inthe Bush administration, would like us to believethat the horrific acts of torture conducted in AbuGhraib prison in Baghdad were an aberration, theatypical behavior of a few bad apples. Unfortu-nately, this is not the case. As the articles in this pamphlet show, the use of torture by the U.S. gov-ernment and citizens has a long and sordid history both in the United States and abroad. This pam- phlet is not an exhaustive study of the use of tor-ture; it focuses specifically on cases of tortureconducted by U.S. citizens furthering policiessanctioned by the U.S. state.
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 Bruce Franklin's article, “The AmericanPrison and the Normalization of Torture,” showshow the American prison system developed into acentral institution of U.S. society, one that hasmade torture routine and acceptable. The physi-cal, mental, and sexual abuse glimpsed at AbuGhraib is part of the daily experience for two mil-lion people caged in American prisons, while mostof the rest of the American public acquiesces or denies the reality of this torture.Don Luce’s essay, “The Tiger Cages of ConSon,” reveals again, as did his original testimonyin the 1970s, the depths to which the U.S. gov-ernment sank in its ultimately futile efforts to de-feat the Vietnamese people. It imprisoned thoseVietnamese it considered “the enemy” in tiger cages, subjected them to physical abuses, deprivedthem of food and water, and, as if all that was not bad enough, poured lye on them to burn and scar them.Jane Franklin's “Guantánamo Prison” revealshow Washington's forced occupation of Cubanterritory a century ago has led to its logical con-clusion – a prison. Used first for Haitians and Cu- bans and then for captives of the “War on Terror,”the U.S. military base has become a crucible for torture exported to Afghanistan and Iraq.Marjorie Cohn’s article, “Bush & Co.: War Crimes and Cover-Up,”
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asks why the torture storyhas virtually disappeared from the media andmuch of the public consciousness. To answer thisquestion, she examines the inner machinations of the Bush administration and the history of its dis-cussions and directives on torture.John Cox’s article, “The Abu Ghraib Scan-dal and the U.S. Occupation of Iraq,” accom- plishes several critical goals. It succinctly summa-rizes the history of the scandal at Abu Ghraib andthe investigations into it and discusses who is re-sponsible for the abuses. Cox also makes the im- portant point that much of the U.S. media cover-age of the abuse has ignored the torture of womenand children that took place at Abu Ghraib, thedetails of which are particularly horrible.Probably the one area of the world where theU.S. government has most engaged in the use of torture is Latin America. Torture was integral toU.S. foreign policy in Latin America, as RichardGrossman’s article, “Nicaragua: A Tortured Na-tion,” illustrates. The infamous School of theAmericas trained key Latin American military of-ficers and troops, some of whom ushered in the brutal military dictatorships that presided over their countries from the 1960s to the 1990s.
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Inaddition, as Grossman points out, members of the

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