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Chapter 6 Section 1- Washington Heads the New Government

Chapter 6 Section 1- Washington Heads the New Government

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Published by Jason Saba

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Published by: Jason Saba on Mar 21, 2010
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10/24/2012

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U.S. History Jason Saba
CHAPTER 6: “Launching the New Nation” _____________________________________________________  _ 
Section 1: Washington Heads the New Government
One Americans Story:
George Washington was looked upon after therevolutionary war as a strong, national leader by the American people. Washingtonreluctantly accepted the call to duty on April 16, 1789
 The New Government Takes Shape:
Even though they were now free and followed the Constitution, they were still brought up with the fact of creating a more detailed government
o
Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress set up a federal court system, headed by a Supreme Court
More andMore questions being brought up. (i.e. What type of additional courts shouldthere be and how many? What would happen if federal court decisions conflictedwith state laws?)
The Judiciary Act of 1789:
This created a judicial structure which would answer the questions spawned after the creation of the federal court system by Congress.It provided for a Supreme Court consisting of a chief justice and five associate justices. It also set up 3 federal circuit courts and 13 federal district courtsthroughout the country. (#’s of justices increase over time) Section 25 of this lawallowed state court decisions to be appealed to a federal court when constitutionalissues were raised. This section guaranteed that federal laws remained “thesupreme Law of the Land”, as directed by Article 6 of the Constitution.
o
Washington Shapes the Executive Branch
3 departments for the new executive branch: The Department of State, to dealwith foreign affairs; The Department of War, to handle military matters; and theDepartment of Treasury, to manage finances
Washington chose people whom he trusted and had known to be in his Cabinet
Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804):
Chosen by George Washington and thesecretary of the treasury. He joined the army during the Revolution and becamean aide to General Washington. As he moved up in society, he had little faith inthe common citizen and sided with the interests of upper-class Americans
Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State
Henry Knox- Secretary of War 
The Cabinet:
The President’s chief advisors
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate
 Notes taken from,
The Americans,
 by McDougal Littel
 
o
Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict
Hamilton believed in a strong central government led by prosperous, educatedelite of upper-class citizens. He believed that commerce and industry were thekeys to a strong nation (vision of America- similar to that of Great Britain’s)
Jefferson distrusted a strong central government and the rich. He favored strongstate and local governments rooted in popular participation
o
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
He proposed to pay off the foreign debt and to issue new bonds to cover the oldones. He also proposed that the federal government assume the debts of thestates. He believed this would give the creditors an incentive to support the newfederal government. This proposal made many people in the South furious because some states had already paid off their debts. They resented it as theythought they would be taxed to help pay the debts by the North
o
Plan for a National Bank 
The Bank of the United States:
It would issue paper money and handle taxreceipts and other government funds. It would be funded by both the federalgovernment and wealthy private investors. This lead to a storm of controversy between groups. In the end, Hamilton convinced Washington to go through withit
o
The District of Columbia
Make Southerners happy by moving the district more south (District of Columbia)
1790- Hamilton’s Debt Bill is passed with the support of the Virginians
Pierre L’Enfant- a French engineer, drew up plans for the new capital. L’Enfantwas then replaced by Andrew Ellicott who, with the assistance of BenjaminBanneker, surveyed the land
The First Political Parties and Rebellion
The conflict and controversy between Hamilton and Jefferson was so great thatthe two men continued to clash over government policy. Their conflict decidedthe cabinet and fueled a growing division in national politics
o
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
Those who shares Hamilton’s vision of a strong central government calledthemselves Federalists. Those who supported Jefferson’s vision of strong stategovernments called themselves “Republicans” (not republicans of today)
Democratic-Republicans:
The ancestors of today’s Democratic Party
Washington criticized the development of the two parties
The Two-Party System:
System in which the government consists of two parties
o
The Whiskey Rebellion
Protective Tariff:
an import tax on goods produced in Europe
Excise Tax:
a tax pushed through by Hamilton on a product’s manufacture, sale,or distribution – to be levied on the manufacture of whiskey
The excise (Whiskey) tax made the farmers furious. In 1794, they refused to paythe tax and threatened to secede from the Union Notes taken from,
The Americans,
 by McDougal Littel

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