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Earthquakes

Earthquakes

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Published by shashi611

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: shashi611 on Mar 21, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/14/2012

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Earthquakes
Earthquakes are vibrations in the earth.Earthquakes are recurring phenomena, affecting areas repeatedly.Most earthquakes are waves resulting from the release of stored elasticenergy from motion along faults; some are due to such causes asexplosions, sudden volume changes in subducting oceanic crust due tochanges in PT conditions and resulting changes in mineral phase, or asteroid impacts.
 
Voc
abulary
Earthquakes are measured using devices called
seism
o
meters
(thesensor) or 
seism
og
raphs
(sensor + recorder) on records called
seism
og
rams
(paper or computer file).
(Same endings as with telegrams)
Seismi
c
refers to vibrations of the ground.
Seism
o
l
og
y
is a branch of geophysics dealing with earthquakes, their causes, and the planetary distribution of seismic velocity (whole-earthseismology) or using artificially-induced vibrations to explore thesubsurface (exploration seismology).
F
o
resh
oc
ks
occur before a major earthquake
, aftersh
oc
ks
occur after it
.
When it happens, you don't know whether an earthquake is a foreshock to something bigger or just a regular earthquake.
 
M
o
ti
on
In typical earthquakes, motion along a fault is initiated at a single point (
oc
us
in 3D,
epi
c
e
n
ter
on a map)and the tear propagates outward from there, triggering other segments to slip. Much of the energy isreleased as motion waves radiating from the fault.
Types
o
f m
o
ti
on
 ± 
Bod
y waves
travel through the body of the material
P-waves
are compressional waves, like sound in air 
S-waves
are vibrations at right angles to the direction of propagation, like light. ± 
Surfa
c
e waves
travel along an interface, as between air and ground, or loose materials and bedrock andcause most of the damage in earthquakes.
Raylei
g
h waves
travel along the rock-air interface, and cause the most damage and are like water waves
L
o
ve waves
are transverse and travel along solid-solid boundaries, like bedrock.

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