Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Digital Divide 2

Digital Divide 2

Ratings: (0)|Views: 39|Likes:
Published by Abdullah_Rady_8844

More info:

Published by: Abdullah_Rady_8844 on Mar 21, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/09/2010

pdf

text

original

 
        1        1        6
   C    h   a   p   t   e   r   8   I   C   T   C    h   a    l    l   e   n   g   e   s    f   o   r   t    h   e   A   r   a    b   W   o   r    l    d
Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss ongoingdevelopments in the Arab world in the areas of informationand communication technology (ICT) and to highlightthe obstacles to and present recommendations for furtherdevelopment. We looked at the environment as well asindividual, business, and government variables in assessingthe current state of development and the impact of nationaland regional ICT strategies. Our recommendations areaddressed to policymakers at the national and regional levels.The scope of this chapter encompasses thirteen countries,which we group according to geography. We define the “Gulf,”the “Arabian Gulf,” or “Gulf states” as comprising Kuwait,Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, andOman. Our definition of “Levant” includes Lebanon, Syria,Jordan, and Egypt. We classify Tunisia, Algeria, and Moroccoas the “Maghreb states.”
Overview of Progress in ICT in the ArabWorld
ICT strategic intent can be measured against publishedstrategy documentation, actual progress in theimplementation of ICT strategies, and the presence of technology-building initiatives and research and development(R&D) institutes. We reviewed the ICT-awareness of Arabgovernments by looking into their strategic plans andoperational five-year plans, and observed that there areuneven levels of awareness of and importance given to ICTboth in stated national strategies and demonstrated success inimplementation.
Arab states are adapting their legal and regulatoryframeworks for ICT
As Arab states join the World Trade Organization (WTO),they have been adapting their legal and regulatory systemsto accommodate trademark, patent, and intellectualproperty rights (IPR) protection. Some states have beenpart of the early stages of IPR
1
protection; others haveretroactively signed the agreements and sought membershipof the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)(see Figure 1). Nine of the countries in the scope of this study are members of the WTO, and eleven joinedthe Paris Convention for the Protection of IndustrialProperty,
2
on whose principles the WIPO was founded.Arab states’ participation in interim treaties is uneven:only four have signed the Patent Cooperation Treaty 
3
 (PCT) and three the Patent Law Treaty (PLT). There hasbeen improvement in the mid-to-late 1990s, when eight of them joined the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). A joint WTO-WIPOframework, TRIPS revisits the entire IPR protection system,standardizing intellectual property definitions, affirmingand enforcing national treatment and most favored nationprinciples through a series of procedures, and providing
Chapter 8
ICT Challengesfor the ArabWorld
Soumitra Dutta,
INSEAD
Mazen E. Coury,
Independent Consultant
Chapter 2
 
        1        1        7
   C    h   a   p   t   e   r   8   I   C   T   C    h   a    l    l   e   n   g   e   s    f   o   r   t    h   e   A   r   a    b   W   o   r    l    d
for standard dispute treatment processes. At this stage, only Lebanon, Syria, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar are yet toenact the agreement.Arab states will increasingly become attractive investmenttargets as TRIPS regulations begin to be enforced. With astandardized IPR protection system and the fact that by January 2005 Arab states are required to extend productpatent protection to types of products not previously patented, the region is due to witness further integrationinto global research and development. Arab states arealso drafting new laws to foster ICT growth and investorconfidence at the national levels. Figure 2 highlights Arabstates’ current efforts in adapting their IPR-related lawsto the specific needs of technology and ICT. The legalframework upgrade has been uneven: the Levant areaand the Maghreb have been, in general, more advanced increating frameworks, thanks to their earlier exposure tothe global legal culture. Latecomers include the Gulf states;their efforts pertaining to the upgrade of these laws havetherefore been more recent.
Creation of a research-promoting environment
Arabs states display significant interest in technology initiatives. Materialized via technopoles
4
and/or technology incubators,
5
the benefits of these initiatives includeproviding an environment for research and developmentin collaboration with private initiatives, developingtechnology diffusion, benefiting the social and economicfabric by creating new employment possibilities, buildingthe ecosystem for business development, and enhancingtechnological transfers between the public and privatesectors. In all cases, private-public partnerships anduniversities play central roles. The political and regulatory environment in the Arab world is being adapted inaccordance with best practices from the United States andEurope.Arab states have been prolific on both the technopole andincubator fronts: all countries discussed in this chapterhave at least launched a national planning process for thesetechnology-building initiatives, with varying degrees of success in implementation. Figure 3 highlights the readinessand operational facilities of Arab states. Technology-dedicated research facilities are operational componentsof Arab states’ national strategies. In the Gulf, Kuwait,Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates stand outin terms of research facilities. Initially sector-oriented(mineral and petrochemical sectors), these facilities nowencompass ICT and high technology. Levant and Maghrebstates drafted plans for such facilities as early as the 1960s(for example, Lebanon drafted its National Council forScientific Research in 1969 and a general framework to
WIPO TreatiesWTOMemberParisConventionWCTPCTMadridAgreementHagueAgreementTLTPLTNairobiTreatyTRIPSGulf
Kuwait
(1998)
(1995)Saudi Arabia
(1982)
      
Bahrain
(1997)
(1995)Qatar
(2000)
(1976)
(1983)
U.A.E.
(1996)
(1974)
(1999)
(1999)
(1996)Oman
(1999)
(2001)
(1986)
(2000)
Levant
Lebanon
(1924)
(1986)
(1924)
(2000)
Syrian AR
(1924)
(1924)
(1984)
Jordan
(1972)
(1972)
(2000)Egypt
(1951)
(1952)
(1975)
(1999)
(1982)
(1995)
Maghreb
Tunisia
(1984)
(1982)
(1930)
(1983)
(1995)Algeria
(1966)
(1975)
(2000)
(1972)
(2000)
(1984)
Morocco
(1917)
(1971)
(1999)
(1917)
(1930)
(1993)
(1995)
Figure 1.
Status of Arab States on Intellectual Property Rights
Key:
, not signed or nonmember;
(date) signed on dateWIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization; WCT: WIPO Copyright Treaties; PCT: Patent Cooperation Treaty;TLT: Trademarks Low Treaty; PLT: Patent Law Treaty
 
        1        1        8
   C    h   a   p   t   e   r   8   I   C   T   C    h   a    l    l   e   n   g   e   s    f   o   r   t    h   e   A   r   a    b   W   o   r    l    d
develop the country’s scientific potential). Moroccanresearch and ICT involvement, led by the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, was inspired by leading French research institutes. Six countries operatetechnopoles dedicated to research and development intechnology. Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz City for Scienceand Technology (KACST), for instance, has evolved from itspetroleum focus to include atomic energy, astronomy andgeophysics, computer and electronics, and aerospace. Othercountries, such as Jordan, with its newly established ICTplan, have adopted a narrower focus. Technology incubatorsplans are ready, but we identified only three operationaltechnology incubators of national magnitude across thearea. As venture funding is still marginal in the area, mosttechnology incubators have yet to flourish.
Deployment of ICT infrastructure improvementprograms
There are several ongoing ICT-infrastructure developmentinitiatives in the Arab world; they are strategically importantbecause of the magnitude of investment, anticipatedbenefits, and fit with national ICT plans. Progress ismeasurable in network and teledensity achievements,regional and global connectivity, as well as in operationale-government facilities.National network upgrades, teledensity improvements,enhanced national connectivity, and the gradualintroduction of new Internet provider (IP) delivery technologies are creating a favorable environment for theuptake of ICT. However, much progress remains to be made.The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) hasranked states based upon national teledensities—Group A,the lowest rank, for countries with less than 1 percent fixedline penetration rates in 2001; and Group G, the highestrank, with teledensity rates higher than the 50 percentthreshold in 2001 (ITU 2002). Of the thirteen countriesunder consideration in this chapter, six ranked in the Ccategory (teledensity between the 5 percent and 10 percent);the D and E categories each had three countries, and theUnited Arab Emirates was on par with Spain and Portugalin the F category (35 percent to 50 percent). Nationalteledensity improvement has to remain a priority in mostArab states.
6
 Geographical disparities between the Gulf states and therest of the region have led to the adoption of divergingnational fixed line development strategies. Most Gulf states are in the process of completing the digitalization of their public networks, whilst Maghreb states are workingon densification and upgrading the existing telephonenetworks. With small populations but high investmentsin their national networks, Gulf states have matched oroutperformed international standards in ICT infrastructure,whereas the densely populated Levant and Maghreb
Figure 2.
Selected IPR-related Laws Enacted per Country
Country Year:* Law/Decree/ActGulf
Kuwait2001: Patent Law2001: Trademark Law2000: Copyright LawSaudi Arabia1984: Trademark Law1989: Patent Law1989: Copyright LawBahrain1977: Patent Law1991: Trademark Law1993: Copyright DecreeQatar1978: Trademark Law1995: Copyright LawU.A.E.1992: Patent and Industrial Design Law1992: Trademark LawOman1987: Trademark Law2000: Royal Decree on Patent Law2000: Royal Decree and Law on Trademarks,Indications, and Secrets and Protection against UnfairCompetition
Levant
Lebanon1946: Patent Law1999: Copyright LawSyrian AR1949: Copyright Law1980: Patent Legislative DecreeJordan1953: Patent and Industrial Design Act1999: Trademark Law1999: Copyright Law2000: Layout Design of Integrated Circuits LawEgypt1949: Patent and Industrial Models Act1969: Trademark Act1992: Copyright Act
Maghreb
Tunisia1956: Patents decree1936: Trademark decree1994: Copyright decreeAlgeria1966: Decree 6660 concerning patents andinnovation certificates1966: Ordonnance 66–57 relative aux marques defabriques et de commerce1966: Ordonnance 66–223 relative aux dessins etmodèles industriels1993: Décrêt legislative 93–17 relatif à la protectiondes inventions1997: Ordonnance 97–10 relative aux droitsd’auteurs1998: Décrêt exécutif 98–366 portant statuts del’Office National des Droits d’Auteurs et des DroitsVoisins (ONDA)Morocco1916: Patents Dahir1997: Industrial Property Law2000: Copyright Law
*Dates indicate latest modifications and amendments.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->