contexts.Professor’s role is to be primary information giver and primary evaluator.Teacher’s role is to coach and facilitate. Teacher and students evaluate learning together.Teaching and assessing are separate.Teaching and assessing are intertwined.Assessment is used to monitor learning.Assessment is used to promote and diagnoselearning.Emphasis is on right answers.Emphasis is on generating better questions andlearning from errors.Desired learning is assessed indirectly through theuse of objectively scored tests.Desired learning is assessed directly through papers, projects, performances, portfolios, and thelike.Focus is on a single discipline.Approach is compatible with interdisciplinaryinvestigation.Culture is competitive and individualistic.Cultural is cooperative, collaborative, andsupportive.Only students are viewed as learners.Teacher and students learn together.
From Learner-center assessment on college campuses
(p. 5), by M. E.Huba & J. E. Freed, 2000, Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.
The factors above contribute to the needs for teachers to change. And the facts prove that educational reforms cannot attain its goals without the fundamentalchanges from teachers. That is why scholars such as Fullan and Stiegelbauer (1991)and Fullan (2001) have urged teachers to play the roles of change agents within theeducational context. However, why teaches choose to engage in professionaldevelopment programs and why they are willing to be change agents are closelyrelated to such internal forces of teachers as motivation or personal belief and theexternal attributes like social changes or school reforms. While most researches promote either the ideas of the importance of teacher professional growth or thedesign of professional programs, there is a need to explore and analyze those inner needs or motives. This research expects to explore teachers’ internal needs or motives for professional development. To do this, it is necessary to examine whatmakes teaching an isolated job and how to encourage teacher collaboration.
Teacher Isolation vs. Teacher Collaboration
Teacher isolation, a common theme addressed by those who study the collegialrelationships of teacher (Johnson, 1990; Little, 1993), is defined as the extent towhich teachers are restricted from or restrict themselves from interactions with other individuals or groups in the school (Bakkenes, Brabander, & Imants, April, 1999;Johnson, 1990). Generally speaking, this isolation is built into the structure of theworking day, in the scheduling, in the description of roles, duties, and