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Menucha and Shabbat -- MessianIsm and Rest

Menucha and Shabbat -- MessianIsm and Rest

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Published by R Stern
Jewish texts that trace the development of the messianic idea, its relationship to Shabbat and the connection of both to resurrection and life after death.
Jewish texts that trace the development of the messianic idea, its relationship to Shabbat and the connection of both to resurrection and life after death.

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Published by: R Stern on Mar 21, 2010
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Shabbat, Menucha and Elijah
Elijah the prophet, Elijah the Tishbite, Elijah the Giladi.May he soon come to us, with the messiah son of David.
The heaven and the earth were finished,and all their array. On the seventh day Godfinished the work that He had been doing,and He ceased on the seventh day from allthe work that He had done. And Godblessed the seventh day and declared itholy, because on it God ceased from all thework of creation that He had done. Such isthe story of heaven and earth when theywere created.
׃ם ָא ָב ְצ־ל ָכְו
ץ ֶר ָא ָהְו
םִי ַמ ָשּׁ ַה
וּלּ ֻכְיַו
וֹתּ ְכא ַל ְמ
י ִעי ִב ְשּׁ ַה
םוֹיּ ַבּ
םי ִה ֱא
ל ַכְיַו
י ִעי ִב ְשּׁ ַה
םוֹיּ ַבּ
תֹבּ ְשׁִיּַו
ה ָשׂ ָע
ר ֶשׁ ֲא ִמ׃ה ָשׂ ָע
ר ֶשׁ ֲא
וֹתּ ְכא ַל ְמ־ל ָכּ
 ִעי ִב ְשּׁ ַה
םוֹי־ת ֶא
םי ִה ֱא
ך ֶר ָבְיַוי  ִמ
ת ַב ָשׁ
י ִכּ
שׁ ֵדּ ַקְיַווֹתּ ְכא ַל ְמ־ל ָכּ
׃תוֹשׂ ֲע ַל
םי ִה ֱא
א ָר ָבּ־ר ֶשׁ ֲא
On six days work may be done, but onthe seventh day there shall be a sabbath of complete rest, a sacred occasion. You shalldo no work; it shall be a sabbath of theLord throughout your settlements.(Leviticus 23)
םוֹיּ ַבוּ
ה ָכא ָל ְמ
ה ֶשׂ ָע ֵתּ
םי ִמָי
ת ֶשׁ ֵשׁ
שׁ ֶדֹק־א ָר ְק ִמ
ןוֹת ָבּ ַשׁ
ת ַבּ ַשׁ
י ִעי ִב ְשּׁ ַה ת ָבּ ַשׁ
וּשׂ ֲע ַת
ה ָכא ָל ְמ־ל ָכּאו ִה ׃ם ֶכי ֵתֹב ְשׁוֹמ
לֹכ ְבּ
הָוהי ַל
The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to the Israelite people thus: In the seventhmonth, on the first day of the month, youshall observe complete rest, a sacredoccasion commemorated with loud blasts.You shall not work at your occupations;and you shall bring an offering by fire tothe Lord. (Leviticus 25)
׃רֹמא ֵלּ
ה ֶשׁֹמ־ל ֶא
ר ֵבּ ַדְיַו
שׁ ֶדֹח ַבּ
רֹמא ֵל
ל ֵא ָר ְשׂִי
יֵנ ְבּ־ל ֶא
ר ֵבּ ַדּ
ם ֶכ ָל
הֶי ְהִי
שׁ ֶדֹח ַל
ד ָח ֶא ְבּ
י ִעי ִב ְשּׁ ַה ׃שׁ ֶדֹק־א ָר ְק ִמ
ה ָעוּר ְתּ
ןוֹר ְכִז
ןוֹת ָבּ ַשׁ
וּשׂ ֲע ַת
ה ָדֹב ֲע
ת ֶכא ֶל ְמ־ל ָכּ הָוהי ַל
ה ֶשּׁ ִא
ם ֶתּ ְב ַר ְק ִהְו׃
SHEVUT (Shevus)
Symmachus holds the same opinion as the Rabbis who had laid down that every kind of occupation that may be classed as shevut. (Root ShVT) (an act that is only Rabbinicallyforbidden to be performed on the Sabbath) (Eruvin 30b)
Beginnings of the Confusion
That was on the thirteenth day of themonth of Adar; and they rested on thefourteenth day and made it a day of feasting and merrymaking. (Esther 9)
ר ָד ֲא
שׁ ֶדֹח ְל
ר ָשׂ ָע
ה ָשׁ ְשׁ־םוֹי ְבּ
 ָשׂ ָע
ה ָע ָבּ ְר ַא ְבּםוֹי
הֹשׂ ָעְו
רה ָח ְמ ִשׂְו
ה ֶתּ ְשׁ ִמ
The same days on which the Jews enjoyedrelief from their foes and the same monthwhich had been transformed for them fromone of grief and mourning to one of festive joy.
־ר ֶשׁ ֲא
םי ִמָיּַךּ
ם ֶה ָב
םי ִדוּהְיּ ַה
 ֵמם ֶה ָל
ך ַפּ ְהֶנ
ר ֶשׁ ֲא
שׁ ֶדֹח ַהְו
ם ֶהי ֵבְיוֹא  ִמ ֵמוּ
ה ָח ְמ ִשׂ ְל
םוֹי ְל
ל ֶב ֵא
The Prophecy to David (from Nathan)
When the king was settled in his palace andthe Lord had granted him safety from allthe enemies around him. (II Sam 7)
וֹתי ֵב ְבּ
ך ֶל ֶמּ ַה
ב ַשׁָי־י ִכּ
י ִהְיַו  ִמ
וֹל־ ַיִנ ֵה ִמ
בי ִב ָסּ׃וי ָבְיֹא־ל ָכּ
Thus said the Lord of Hosts: I took youfrom the pasture, from following the flock,to be ruler of My people Israel, and I havebeen with you wherever you went, andhave cut down all your enemies before you.Moreover, I will give you great renownlike that of the greatest men on earth. I willestablish a home for My people Israel andwill plant them firm, so that they shalldwell secure and shall tremble no more.Evil men shall not oppress them any moreas in the past, ever since I appointedchieftains over My people Israel. I will giveyou safety (
י ִתֹחיִנ ֲהַו
from all your enemies.The Lord declares to you that He, the Lord,will establish a house for you. When yourdays are done and you lie with your fathers,I will raise up your offspring after you, oneof your own issue, and I will establish hiskingship. He shall build a house for Myname, and I will establish his royal throneforever. I will be a father to him, and heshall be a son to Me. When he does wrong,I will chastise him with the rod of men andthe affliction of mortals; but I will neverwithdraw My favor from him as I withdrewit from Saul, whom I removed to makeroom for you.Your house and yourkingship shall ever be secure before you;your throne shall be established forever.
Associated with the “rest” of Death (Menucha)
 It was taught, R. Eliezer said: The souls of the righteous are hidden under the Throne of Glory, as it is said, “the life of my lord will be bound up in the bundle of life in the careof the Lord.” (I Sam. 25:29) But those of the wicked continue to be imprisoned, whileone angel stands at one end of the world and a second stands at the other end, and theysling their souls to each other, for it is said, and the souls of thine enemies, them shall hesling out, as from the hollow of a sling (source not attributed). Rabbah asked R. Nahman:What about those who are intermediate? Had I died I could not have told you this, hereplied. Thus did Samuel say: Both these and those [the wicked and the intermediate] are
 3delivered to Dumah
; these enjoy rest (manuach), whereas the others have no rest(manuach). (Shab 152b)
 Nach nafsheha
–idiomatic for “death” in Talmud. i.e. When he died.R. Hiyya b. Ashi as citing Rab, said: The disciples of the Sages have no rest (menucha)even in the world to come, as it is said: “They go from strength to strength, every one of them appeareth before God in Zion.” (Ps. 84:8) (Mo’ed Katan 29b)
Messianic “Rest”—MenuchaR. Johanan also said: As long as that wicked man lived mirth was never heard in themouth of any living being, for it is written, “the whole world is at rest (nacha), and isquiet (shakta), then loudly it sings (Is. 14:7)”: they break forth into singing: whence itfollows that hitherto there was no singing. (Shab 149b)
The guardian angel of the deceased. [The name is probably Silence, which is the meaning of Dumah,personified.]

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