acknowledged; this document was widelycirculated (62-65). At Truman's request,Clark
(September 24, 1946) on the influenceKennan's memo was having, and translatingit into the imperative of weaponsdevelopment (including biological weapons)and persecution of American Communists(65-68).
Kennan's critique of Willett
paper (October 7, 1946): Kennan criticized apaper urging a massive military build-up, but James Forrestal thought this too "weak" (68-69).
In 1947,"the instruments of war were locked inplace" (70).
Kennan's speech to theCouncil on Foreign Relations
(January 7,1947): A version of this became the famous"X" article in
Kennan memo to Forrestal
(January 31,1947): recommended confrontation with theRussians at every point (71). Manichean,hyperbolic
Truman Doctrine Speech
(March 12, 1947): any Communist regimeanywhere undermines U.S. national security(72-73).
r (Exec. Order 9835,March 21, 1947): this was largely political(73-74).
Attorney General's list of subversive organizations
(April 3, 1947)(75).
Policy Planning Staff
created (May5, 1947) by Secretary of State GeorgeMarshall (75-76).
Delta Council speech
(May 8, 1947) delivered in Mississippi byDean Acheson (76-77).
(June 5, 1947) (77-79).
(July 1947) proposed the"policy of firm containment" (79-82). The
National Security Act
(July 16, 1947)reorganized U.S. military resources, creatingthe Dept. of Defense (as it was laterrenamed), the National Security Council, andthe CIA (82-84). The NSC set up a separatecovert war operation to conduct "
"on the USSR (December 17, 1947) (85).
Ch. 6: Completing the Apparatus (1948-1952).
(March 30, 1948) called for a"world-wide counter-offensive" against theSoviet Union (86).
set up theOffice of Policy Coordination (June 18, 1948)to meddle secretly in foreign politics (87-89).
(August 18, 1948) declaredrollback of Soviet power as a state objective,even at the risk of war (89-91).
(November 24, 1948) states that the U.S.must prevent the Soviet takeover of Europe(91). The
North Atlantic Treaty
(April 4,1949) founded NATO (91-92).
(September 14, 1949), encouraged by Tito'ssplit with Moscow, called for pressuring othercountries to do so (92). Paul Nitze's
(April 14, 1950) called for massive warmobilization, quadrupling the military budget(92-97). A
Psychological Strategy Board
(April 4, 1951) was set up to work onpropaganda (97). The
was created (November 4, 1952) tomonitor foreign information (98). Theseinstitutions founded the National SecurityState; "The whole structure is outside theConstitution" (98). It was "riddled withillegalities from the outset" (99). Itinstitutionalized "subversion, sabotage, andassassination. It may be said—it has beensaid—that all governments do these things.But the United States had not done so in anysystematic way before the period after WorldWar II. And other countries do not have theUnited States Constitution" (99). It violatedthe Constitution's requirement of accountability (99-102).
PART THREE: PRESIDENTIAL WARSCh. 7: Korea.
The Korean War was the firstassertion of the president's prerogative inthe Bomb Power era; the decision was madeindependently of Congress; Sec. of StateAcheson's claims of precedent were bogus(105-08), as were the claims of a U.N. policeaction (108-13). Gen. MacArthur workedagainst Truman's policy and was dismissed;presidential wars prove hard to end (113-19).
Ch. 8: Permanent Emergency.
Trumandeclared a national emergency on Dec. 16,1950 (120-122). He promoted UniversalMilitary Training (UMT) (122). He sought thepower to draft railroad workers (123-25). Hetried to seize steel mills (125-28). He andother presidents multiplied executive ordersmeant to have the force of law—and behindall the usurpations of power was the Bomb(128-34).
PART FOUR: INFORMATION POWERCh. 9: Secrecy as Embarrassment Cover.
Hundreds of millions of secret papers aregenerated every year (137-40). The statesecrets doctrine had its origin in a case