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The Subnet Training Guide V2.5 by Brendan Choi

# The Subnet Training Guide V2.5 by Brendan Choi

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The Subnet Training Guide V2.5 by Brendan Choi
The Subnet Training Guide V2.5 by Brendan Choi

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02/06/2013

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The Subnet Training Guide
A Step By Step Guide on Understanding and Solving Subnetting Problems
by Brendan Choieasysubnet.comv2.5

Chapter 1Understanding IP addressing and Subnetting
Chapter 2Subnetting Step By Step, including VLSM
2.1Short Review of IP Addresses and Subnetting392.2Solving Class C Subnetting Questions412.3Class C Major Networks: Calculating Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts per Subnet452.4Class C Major Networks: Calculating Subnet Network Address for Subnet N482.5Solving Class B Subnetting Questions492.6Class B Major Networks: Calculating Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts per Subnet512.7Solving Class A Subnetting Questions552.8Class A Major Networks: Calculating Number of Subnets and Number of Hosts per Subnet572.9Solving Basic VLSM Questions592.10 Exercises64
Chapter 3CIDR, Supernetting and Classless Addressing
Chapter 4Advance VLSM and Subnetting Problems
4.1Class A and B Major Networks: Calculating Subnet Network Address for Subnet N744.2Advance VLSM Problems754.3Exercises79
80

Chapter 1Understanding IP addressing and Subnetting
1.0Introduction
An IP address under Internet Protocol Version 4 is a number that is assigned to adevice that allows other devices on the network to locate and reach it. Specialdevices called routers use IP addresses to find the bestcommunication paths between network devices.Examples of devices that need IP addresses to communicate ona network include PC’s, servers, printers, disk arrays, thin clients, routers, firewalls, switches, wireless access points, PDA's, mobile phones, IP phones, online gaming systems, and cable TV boxes. More and more devicesin the world need IP addresses to communicate on the internet.IPv4 number values range from
0 to 4,294,967,295
(we will learn why later). Millions of these numbers can beused as “IP addresses”. For example, the value
1,789,532,491
is a valid IP number. But we don't write IP valuesin a flat decimalformat like
347,895
or
1,789,532,491
. Instead, we write IP numbers in a special hierarchical“dotted decimal” format. For example, we write
1,789,532,491
as
106.170.25.75
.IP numbers are hierarchical because the IP addressing space (all the IP numbers) is also a
. This will becomeclearer as we go along. The IP address tells us something about the network or subnet the IP address is in.Tohelp us find the exact network, we need to know the
, also called a
. A subnet mask is a special IPv4 number, like
255.255.255.0
unicast
IP addresses, and this would consume an impossible amount of memory and CPU. This would be like if every single post office had to store all the street addresses in thecountry, instead of just the ones in their own individual city. Devices are assigned
(combinations of IP address numbers and subnet masks) by internet service providers, network administrators,and BootP and DHCP servers. Address blocks are given out to companies by internet authorities, such as theIANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) and major telecom and internet service providers.Computers calculate using mathematical logic and theBase 2 number system, also called the
binary number
system. The binary system uses 2 numerical symbols, 0 and 1, which can represent On and Off, or True andFalse. Each symbol, 0 or 1, is called a
bit
. Devicesread IP number values as binary numbers, and then group the binary numbers in

fourgroups of eightbits (for a total of 32 bits)
; each of these groups is called a
byte
or
octet
. We then write down each of these four octets as Base 10 decimal numbers in a “dotted decimal” or "dotted quad" format. The decimal number system is the normal number system that we humans use everyday.So the IP number values are in binary form inside the computer, and we convert them to a dotted decimal form.This may all sound very complicated, but it is infact what makes IP addresses easy to read.Here is an example of four different ways to write down the same IP number value: