Entry of material into the nucleus through phagocytosis. The phagosome travels from thecell membrane to the nucleus, and then is engulfed by the nucleus, releasing its contents.
Although the interior of the nucleusdoes not contain any membrane-boundsubcompartments, its contents are notuniform, and a number of
exist, made up of uniqueproteins, RNA molecules, andparticular parts of the chromosomes.The best known of these is thenucleolus, which is mainly involved inthe assembly of ribosomes. After beingproduced in the nucleolus, ribosomesare exported to the cytoplasm wherethey translate mRNA.
Oldest known depiction of cells and their nuclei by Antonie vanLeeuwenhoek, 1719.Drawing of a
salivary gland cellpublished by Walther Flemming in 1882. Thenucleus contains Polytene chromosomes.
The nucleus was the first organelle to bediscovered. The probably oldest preserved drawingdates back to the early microscopist Antonie vanLeeuwenhoek (1632
1723). He observed a"Lumen", the nucleus, in the red blood cells of salmon
. Unlike mammalian red blood cells,those of other vertebrates still possess nuclei. Thenucleus was also described by Franz Bauer in1804
and in more detail in 1831 by Scottishbotanist Robert Brown in a talk at the LinneanSociety of London. Brown was studying orchidsmicroscopically when he observed an opaque area,which he called the areola or nucleus, in the cellsof the flower's outer layer.
He did not suggest apotential function. In 1838 Matthias Schleidenproposed that the nucleus plays a role in generatingcells, thus he introduced the name "Cytoblast" (cellbuilder). He believed that he had observed newcells assembling around "cytoblasts". Franz Meyenwas a strong opponent of this view having alreadydescribed cells multiplying by division andbelieving that many cells would have no nuclei.The idea that cells can be generated de novo, bythe "cytoblast" or otherwise, contradicted work byRobert Remak (1852) and Rudolf Virchow (1855)who decisively propagated the new paradigm that cells are generated solely by cells ("Omnis cellula e cellula"). Thefunction of the nucleus remained unclear.