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APWH Cumulative Review

APWH Cumulative Review

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11/18/2012

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AP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative Review
1Chapter 3: Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations
o
 
Herodotus was Greek. He was a famous historian in early civilizations andrecorded Egyptian history after the peak years had passed. He referred toEgypt as “the gift of the Nile”.Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia
o
 
The Hindu castes were determined by the color of one’s skin. There were fourmain castes, plus the untouchables.
 
Brahmins, or priests, were the highest class. They were wealthy, lived intemples, and were the liaison between mortals and gods.
 
Kshatriyas were the warrior class.
 
Vaishyas were the common people: merchants, artisans, etc.
 
Shudras were the peasants and workers. In the beginning, they wereprominently composed of Dravidians.
 
Untouchables were not classified as human and comprised of 5% of thepopulation. They worked in jobs that the other castes found undesirable.
o
 
Aryans – Indian
 
Indo-European in origin. The term “Indo-European” is from the 19
th
centuryand is used to describe those speaking the same language group.
 
From Russia and Siberia.
 
Well-documented history.
o
 
Hitler’s perception of Aryans
 
A race that included the ancient Greeks and Romans, as well asScandinavians.
 
“Highest Race”
 
Modern developments in art, science, and technology were attributed tothe Aryans
 
Once “rulers” of the Earth
 
Would come to dominate the world and were light skinned, blond-haired,blue-eyed.
 
Complete fabrication, identified with being founders of western thoughtand civilization and having a powerful influence on culture and literacy.
o
 
Upanishad Beliefs
 
The “ideal person” has no envy, gluttony, greed, or attachment tomaterial goods.
 
Each individual is a small part of the universe and is important for theoverall function of the universe.
 
All living things must be respected and treated as equals.
 
The highest goal is to escape reincarnation and join Brahman (perfection).
 
AP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative Review
2Strong dynasty establishedpeace and prosperity; it isconsidered to have Mandate of HeavenNew dynasty gains power;restores peace and order, andclaims to have Mandate of HeavenIn time, dynasty declinesand becomes corrupt;taxes are raised;
 
powergrows weakerDisasters such as floods, famines, peasant revolts, andinvasions occurDynasty is overthrown throughrebellion and bloodshed; newdynasty emergesOld dynasty is seen as havinglost Mandate of Heaven,rebellion is justifiedChapter 4: Early Societies in East Asia
o
 
The Dynastic Cycle:
o
 
D ynastic C ycle:Chapter 6: Early Societies in America and Oceania
o
 
The most lasting feature of Olmecs was huge obsidian heads: 14 feet high and 35 feet in diameter. Some have crowns, which could indicate that they depictedgods or rulers.
o
 
The largest city in the world Before Common Era was Teotihuacan, with apopulation of over 200,000 people.
 
Pyramid of Sun was the largest structure in Meso-America.
o
 
The major Mayan pyramids were Tikal (in Guatemala), Copan (Honduras), ChichenItza (Mexico).
o
 
The Chavin peoples of South America used llamas as pack animals or “beasts of burden.”
 
AP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative ReviewAP World History Cumulative Review
3Chapter 7: Empires of Persia
o
 
The four dynasties of Persia were:
 
Achaemenid
 
Seleucid
 
Parthian
 
Sasanid
o
 
The lasting contributions of the Persian Empires
 
Highly structured government that consisted of an enormous bureaucracy.
 
Qanats: underground canals used for irrigation: prevented evaporation.They were built by non-Persians under military supervision and could behundreds of miles long.
 
Extensive Trade: Persians traded with Sub-Saharan people, Arabs,Indians, and the Chinese
 
Standard Coinage: the first money was precious metals and not paper.They had important people’s images on them, such as Darius and Xerxes.
 
Roads: The Royal Road linked the empire from Sardis to Susa with anextension to Persepolis. Each province was responsible for maintainingthe roads in their region. Roads generated income.
 
Courier Service: Persians had the 1
st
postal service in the world. It wasused only by elite families and the government. Every 30 miles, there wasa post office on the royal road. Arabian stallions were used for thecourier service and switched at each post office.
 
Banking: The first investment companies were founded in Persia bywealthy families. They offered loans to Persians and non-Persians. Abusiness plan was required in order to obtain a loan.
 
Zoroastrianism: one of the first forms of monotheistic worship, still inexistence in India and Iran.
o
 
Cyrus the Great, the first to unite the tribes of Persia, had a reputation formercy.
o
 
The Battle of Marathon was fought in Greece against the Persians in 490 B.C.E.Marathon is 26 miles away from Athens. The Athenians won because of a superiornavy and their usage of Greek Fire. Phidippides was the messenger who ran fromMarathon to Athens to inform Athenians of the victory.
o
 
The Phoenicians were master sailors who were known for their shipbuilding.Chapter 8: The Unification of China
o
 
The five basic Confucian social relationships were:
 
Rulers and subordinates.
 
Fathers and sons.

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