By EMIL LEDERER
A 400-page plan, written by A-ghani leaders under U.N. supervi-sion, outlines the nal stages oU.S. and NATO withdrawal, and de-tails a rebuilding eort on a scalenot seen since World War Two.Core to the plan is the presenceo the U.N. peacekeeping and hu-manitarian orces in order to guar-antee the quality o lie o all citi-zens through assurances o peace,a means to earn a living, and basicood and health care. “Aghaniwarlords and the Taliban use ac-cess to resources as a source opower. When these resources arereadily available, their authoritywill be neutralized or minimized,”the report states.The plan ocuses heavily onrebuilding schools and retrain-ing teachers who have not taughtsince the Soviet-backed regimewas toppled by U.S.-backed Muja-hedeen in 1992. “An abundance oresearch has shown that individu-als worldwide who are literate areless likely to address problemswith non-diplomatic means” thereport states, adding that this isalso true or U.S. political leaders.One Taliban ocial, who wasin a minority opposing the plans,explained that his group was be-ing supported by Baptist groupsin the U.S. which “understand theneed or men to rule women andthe legitimacy o martyrdom as apolitical strategy.”Aghani leaders are hopeul thatuture powerul states will nallyattend to the lessons learned byprevious imperial powers, in-cluding Britain, Russia, and nowthe U.S. Mikhail Gorbachev, in arecently-published book on thecollapse o the Soviet Union, hasrevealed that he warned PresidentGeorge W. Bush against attemptingto occupy Aghanistan. Mr. Bush’sresponse: “Hey, Gorby, lighten up.The Taliban and the Mujahedeenmay have brought you down, butit was we who provided the und-ing. They’re in our pocket andthey know it.”“I wonder what he thinks nowthat U.S. missiles are bringingdown U.S. drones, and the U.S.had to nationalize banks becauseAmericans wanted control o themeans o production and not justblank checks or the nanciers,”Mr. Gorbachev said.
By BART GARZON
WASHINGTON (AP) — GeorgeW. Bush, the 43rd President o theUnited States, was indicted Mon-day on charges o high treason. Thecharges, led by Attorney GeneralRuss Feingold late in the evening,allege that Mr. Bush, knowing ullwell that Iraq possessed no weap-ons o mass destruction, alsiedinormation in order to pursuethe disastrous Iraq War. (See “U.S.Knew No W.M.D.s in Iraq,” on PageA1.)Federal District Judge MichaelRatner denied Mr. Bush’s requestto represent himsel. Ratner is theormer president o the Center orConstitutional Rights.High treason is usually denedas participation in a war againstone’s own country; attempting tooverthrow its government; spyingon its military, its diplomats, or itssecret services or a hostile andoreign power; or attempting tokill its head o state.“In this case, high treason hasbeen interpreted to include pursu-ing an illegal and devastating warthat has cost hundreds o billionso dollars and the lives o over4,000 Americans and perhaps amillion Iraqis, or essentially in-sane ends,” said Vincent Bugliosi,a ormer ederal prosecutor whomFeingold named lead specialprosecutor in the case. “In eect,the Iraq War amounted to a waragainst America,” added Bugliosi,who is also the author o the book,The Prosecution o George Bushor Murder.Although the treason indict-ment came as no surprise to mostobservers, what was completelyunexpected was the party whobrought it.“The case is highly unusual ina number o ways,” said Bugliosi,“not the least o which is that thedeendant is actually accusinghimsel.”In a press conerence heldclose to midnight yesterday athis Craword, Texas ranch, ormerPresident Bush cited his renewedChristian aith as the catalyst orthis unprecedented action. “Lastmonth, I had a conversation withJesus Christ. A new conversation.And I’ve been very blessed to havebeen born again, again. This time,or real,” Mr. Bush read in a pre-pared statement to hal a dozenstunned reporters.“It’s taken a lot o soul search-ing, or more like deep-soul diving,I think is the term. But now I seethat it was wrong to lead our na-tion to war under alse pretenses.Millions have suered or my sins,and I see now that it is only ttingthat I should suer as well.”Mr. Bush’s sel-accusationseems largely to have been pla-giarized rom years o accusationsmade against him in the press. Itreers to his “political propagandacampaign to sell the war to theAmerican people,” and describeshow he and his team attemptedto make the “W.M.D. threat andthe Iraqi connection to terrorismappear certain, whereas in act weknew there wasn’t one at all.”“The death and economic col-lapse that resulted has been com-pletely devastating to our nationand, most o all, to me,” read Mr.Bush’s indictment. “I want to makeamends, and it is or this reasonthat I am requesting that I be in-dicted or high treason. I thank thecourt or allowing me to right mygrave wrongs. Bring it on!”Some analysts suggest thatMr. Bush’s sel-indictment is parto a strategy to avoid the deathpenalty. Although treason carriesa potential death sentence, Mr.Bush and his team o attorneysare seeking a triple lie sentencewithout possibility o parole.“We don’t want to be too cynicalabout Mr. Bush’s motives,” said aspokesperson or AterDowning-Street.org, one o the main groupsthat had been pursuing Mr. Bush’sindictment. “But even i it doesn’tget moved to the I.C.C., requestinghis own conviction is so unusual itcould move some jurors, or evenhelp with an insanity plea.”A riend o Mr. Bush, speak-ing on condition o anonymity,revealed that Mr. Bush would at-tempt to move the case to the In-ternational Criminal Court, whichdoes not have a death penalty, andwas quietly pressing Secretary oState Naomi Klein to bring the U.S.under the court’s jurisdiction. In2002, then-Secretary o DeenseDonald Rumseld rejected theI.C.C.’s jurisdiction, saying it was“unaccountable to the Americanpeople.”Mr. Bush maintained his charac-teristically jovial manner through-out the proceedings. “I could be ex-ecuted, but what good would thatdo anybody? Especially me. I thinkthe nation would rather I spend agood long while considering whathappened — not only the tragicend o hundreds o thousandso lives, but the end o Americancapitalism, that I liked, I sincerelyliked,” Mr. Bush said. (See also “AnExclusive Interview With GeorgeW. Bush,” on Page A9.)The treason charge does notaddress compensation or thehundreds o thousands o Iraqiskilled in the war. It is expectedthat surviving amily members oallen American soldiers will lethousands o civil lawsuits alleg-ing wrongul death.
By DARLA ZIMBALIST
Recent studies have shown thatembedded reporters lose per-spective and objectivity. Thrustinto high-tension situations odangerous confict, and surround-ed by a corps o strong personali-ties devoted to a single objective,journalists almost inevitably writesubjectively and sympatheticallyo situations that are best ad-dressed analytically.Yet there are other subjectsthat might be better served by amore sympathetic approach—like the cause o those who workto correct injustices done by ourcountry abroad. Yet The Times’coverage o protesters has otenbeen anything but sympathetic.This paper has belittled the move-ment, marked its participants aswingnuts, and all in all written as iit were beholden to those againstwhom the protests were aimed.Veteran Times reporter JohnHess noted that during his 24years o service at the paper he“never saw a oreign interventionthat the Times did not support,never saw a are increase or a rentincrease or a utility rate increasethat it did not endorse, never sawit take the side o labor in a strikeor lockout, or advocate a raise orunderpaid workers.” When anti-war protesters are covered, theTimes has regularly undercountedthe numbers and glossed overviolent acts by riot police. It hasnever given the demonstratorseditorial support.Ater returning stateside rom16 weeks embedded with the101st Airborne division in Iraq,this reporter decided to right thisimbalance hersel, beginning withsome o the most interesting anti-war protest groups: Iraq VeteransAgainst the War, who stage simu-lated military operations in Ameri-can cities in order to “make thetruth o this war visible”; Unitedor Peace and Justice, a coalitiono 1400 peace groups nationwide;and CODEPINK, a group singledout by ormer President Bush assetting a “dangerous, radical agen-da” or American politics.Beginning next week, embed-ded reports rom this movementwill be eatured every week in thisspace. You, like The Times, willcome to see these organizationsin an entirely dierent light.
By HELEN PREJEAN
NEW YORK – A spontaneouscelebration erupted in the U.N.General Assembly ater represen-tatives o 192 member states unan-imously ratied the Comprehen-sive Arms Ban Treaty. The treatyoutlaws possession, productionand trade o military equipmentranging rom small arms to nucle-ar warheads.“This is watershed moment inthe security o people and thesecurity o the planet itsel,” saidU.S. President Barack Obama.“With weapons o the table, wecan nally ocus on the world’sreal threats: global poverty, pollu-tion, and climate change.”The Comprehensive Arms BanTreaty is an initiative o the U.N.’snew Global Security Protocol,which identies environmentalsustainability as its prime direc-tive.“We cannot have any kind o se-curity unless our planet remainslivable,” said Secretary-GeneralBan Ki-moon. “The tens o trillionso dollars reed by disarmamentmakes it easier to ocus on the big-picture issues.”The weapons ban includes ex-tensive subsidiies or the retool-ing o arms manuacturers. Hoursater the agreement was reached,German weapons giant Heckler & Koch announced its rst contractto take advantage o the incen-tive packages by retting its P11assault pistol actory to producean improved “lie straw,” an indi-vidual water ltration system thatgreatly reduces waterborne dis-ease. The company’s plan will useormer weapons brokers to deliv-er the straws, and they will trainormer child soldiers to handle thelabor-intensive task o local distri-bution.Impetus or the C.A.B.T. devel-oped ater the 1998 EuropeanUnion Code o Conduct, whichprohibits selling weapons tocountries that may use them orexternal aggression or internal op-pression, went largely unheeded.In one contravention o the code,Europe did not cease trade withthe United States and Britain de-spite their unprovoked invasion oIraq in 2003.In Britain, massive publicprotests, including a sit-in thatblocked exit rom the British Par-liament or two weeks, convincedthe government to reverse courseand uphold the E.U. Code o Con-duct, as well as to support pas-sage o the C.A.B.T.One o the primary ocuses othe C.A.B.T. is small arms, whichkill one person every minute, 75percent o them women and chil-dren. A survey conducted last Mayshowed ewer than one-tenth oone percent in avor o continuingthese deaths. In addition to man-dating the immediate cessation oproduction, the C.A.B.T. includesa buyback program to repossessmost o the 640 million small armsalready in circulation, and meltthem down in small mobile smelt-ers which will recycle the steelinto agricultural tools and equip-ment to be distributed locally.As or the 20,350 nuclear war-heads known to exist, they willbe destroyed using monitoringprocedures developed under theStrategic Arms Reduction Treaty.The last country to sign o on thenew plan was North Korea, whoagreed to dismantle their last war-head simultaneously with that othe U.S. The disarmament will takeplace in a ceremony organized andtelevised by members o the nowdeunct Olympic Games Commit-tee. The Olympic Games werecanceled in December ater mostmember nations realized that con-tests to see who could do uselessthings in the name o archaic na-tional boundaries are not helpinganyone.Ailing leader Kim Jong Il madea rare appearance to comment.“Finally, we have rid ourselveso the Olympics. Our best ath-letes will do useul and strenuousthings. And we are very pleased tono longer need bombs to protectourselves rom Americans withmore bombs. We can now ocus onavoiding the collapse o our plan-et’s ecosystem, and on other pur-suits the Great Leader would haveapplauded. The people o NorthKorea will enjoy this challenging,bright uture immensely.”
By F. WUNDERLICH
JORDAN — With the news thatU.S. orces were withdrawing romIraq, nearly ve million Iraqi reu-gees learned that the nightmarethat started in 2003 was over.However, most are convinced thatgoing back to a pre-sanctions oreven pre-war Iraq is a mere pipe-dream.“All Iraqis wanted the war tobe over, but the Iraq that existedbeore has disappeared rom theace o the earth, and no one hasany idea how living in the new onewill eel,” said Malik Abdul-Razzaq,a 37-year-old Iraqi reugee now liv-ing in Amman, Jordan. Abdul-Raz-zaq let Baghdad, where he hadlived all his lie, in early 2006, aterbeing threatened by an “unknownarmed group” due to his relation-ship with a human rights organiza-tion.“Politically what will happen?The country is destroyed, the mi-litias are everywhere,” said Abdul-Razzaq, whose eelings o bewil-derment were a common themeamong reugees.O the 4.7 million people that areestimated to have been uprootedsince 2003, hal o them remainin the country, but ar rom theirtowns and cities and separatedrom amily and riends. Approxi-mately two million have spilledinto Syria and Jordan, where theyhave been living in what humanrights organization Amnesty Inter-national calls “ramshackle campsand struggling to meet basicneeds, like ood and medicine.”About 200,000 have made it be-yond the Middle East, mainly toEurope. In most cases, Iraqi reu-gees are not allowed to work andmust depend on the black market.Amira al-Fadl, 31, now livingin Stockholm, says that “sincethe Samarra bombing in Febru-ary 2006 [when a dome o the Al-Askari Mosque was destroyed bybombs], my parents have beenlocked in their neighborhood,away rom my sisters.” Al-Fadl isdoubtul that she will return. “Toleave, I had to peddle my house,my urniture and the amily jew-elry, and I still needed to borrow$10,000. I’m sleeping on a rela-tive’s couch, but I’m not sure whatI have to go back to.”Leyla Jarrah, 33, also in Stock-holm, can’t keep tears o joy romcoming down her cheeks. But sheis not planning to go back either.“I’ve lost most o my amily and Idon’t think I’d be able to nd myriends. As promising as peoplesay it now is, I can’t see myselstarting all over again.”Harun Saeed, 45, is planningto return to Baghdad. He is oneo only 2000 or so Iraqis to havemade it to the U.S. “Two o myAir Force colleagues were assas-sinated. I spent 14 months andall my savings in Syria. Now, I ambarely surviving.” Despite exten-sive experience as a technician orthe Iraqi Air Force, Saeed has beenunable to nd a job paying morethan minimum wage. He is nowdreaming o going back and seeinghis wie and two children. “I haveno idea what will happen now, butor the rst time in many years, Iam hopeul.”When Timur Barzani, 47, heardthe news, he thought o his chil-dren. “Lie in Damascus is hard,and my wie and I have had to sendour sons to work. My sons now saythey will be too embarrassed to goto school, they think they are tooold to learn the ABCs. But I thinkin Naja we will nd many childrenin the same situation, and they willnot be embarrassed,” Barzani ex-plained.Until the U.S. withdrawal, Iraqireugees usually had only two op-tions. Either they could ace thehumiliation o living as reugeeswithout rights or hope or a bet-ter uture, or they could ace likelydeath i they returned to theirshattered country. The commoneeling among Iraqi reugees todayis o hope or their country, ortheir riends and relatives, and ortheir lives.They know that the social abrico the county has been destroyedby the war and the occupation,and that the challenges are huge.But as Abdul-Razzaq says, “Thewithdrawal is only the rst step.At least now, we Iraqis will be reeto choose our own uture.”
United Nations Unanimously Passes Weapons Ban
Iraqis Around the World Celebrate U.S. Withdrawal, Rebuilding Plan
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Lds Wldwid Scmbl t Fllw amic Ld
The U.S.’s stockpile o W.M.D.s, which includes arms like the one above, will soon be a relic o the past.
FRED WOLFFRASHID HAMASHANI/REUTERS
Iraqi teens participate in team-building exercises organized by aid workers in a Jordan area reugee camp.
SATURDAY, JULY 4, 2009
Americans favor life in prisonover death penalty.
By F. NANSEN
In the wake o the U.S. withdraw-al rom Iraq and Aghanistan, gov-ernment leaders and warlords inconfict zones worldwide seemedto be alling over themselves topledge peace.The President o Sudan declaredan end to hostilities in Darur. “Weare modern, or at least we live in amodern world, near modern coun-tries like the U.S. And like the U.S.,we understand that blood cannotbe the path to benet, whereaspeace can be.”In the Congo, where 45,000 peo-ple continue to die every month,dwarng the toll in Darur, reac-tions were more muted. “I thestrongest country on earth canace not getting everything thatit wants, I guess we can too,” saidLaurent Kabila, President o theDemocratic Republic o Congo.“Now that the U.S. is acing itsresponsibilities in Iraq, what iAmericans start doing that here inthe Congo? We’d better clean upour act.”In Sri Lanka, Somalia, Columbia,the Kashmir, Chad, and elsewhere,ghters on all sides o the con-ficts there pledged to take the U.S.withdrawal to heart. “We cannotcontinue this way,” said one triballeader in Somalia, who wished toremain anonymous. “The time hascome to learn oreign policy justlike the Americans.”In Belgium, Walloons and Flemspromised to cooperate. “We’vebeen idiots, like pinheads romouter space,” said Filip Dewinter,leader o the secessionist VlaamsBelang. “I America is a real coun-try, so is Belgium. They’ve shownus how to behave.”
What the Future Holds for
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THE NEW YORK TIMES
SATURDAY, JULY 4, 2009
By J. FINISTERRA
BAGHDAD — Secretary o De-ense Scott Ritter was joined byIraqi Prime Minister Nuri Al-Malikiand representatives o the ormer“Coalition o the Willing” in Bagh-dad this aternoon or the ground-breaking o a monument to the lastto die during the allies’ occupationo Iraq.An enormous granite obelisk tothe Iraqi dead, 300 eet high, willstand in Firdos Square, where co-alition troops amously attemptedto topple a 40-oot-tall statue oIraqi tyrant Saddam Hussein inApril 2003. A 15-oot-high obeliskwill stand nearby, honoring thecoalition casualties.The dierence in size betweenthe two obelisks will representthe dierent numbers o casual-ties. For the Iraqi dead, the mostconservative estimate o 93,067was chosen to avoid the coalitionmonument being absurdly smallor the Iraqi monument prohibi-tively large.On the side o the allies, thelast to die was Corporal WilliamWhitman, age 28, o Quinnesec,Michigan. Just as ghting began towane, he took up an exposed posi-tion while on a oot patrol and wasstruck by a sniper’s bullet. He diedinstantly, the 4,314th American ca-sualty o the war. In retaliation, aU.S. attack helicopter red rocketsinto a nearby apartment building,killing the sniper and six Iraqi civil-ians. Moments later, U.S. soldiersreceived word that they were tocease re immediately and pre-pare to return home.Mr. Al-Maliki commemoratedAhmed Yahya, a 5-year-old boywho was inside the buildingthe sniper had red rom. Res-cue workers dug him out o therubble rom the rocket blast. Theboy survived overnight but suc-cumbed early the next morningto internal injuries, and was eitherthe 93,067th, the 755,265th or the1,233,657th Iraqi civilian casualtyo the war. (No accurate recordswere kept, and estimates rom di-erent sources confict wildly.)“Ahmed’s lie coincided with theabsolute worst episode in the his-tory o the Middle East,” Mr. Malikisaid o the boy, who was born justater the Iraq War started. “Mayhis lie and death represent theimportance o never again see-ing such catastrophe rain on ourheads, whether or alse pretencesor even real ones.”“I stand beore you as a repre-sentative o the American peopleto tell you that some o us tried,”Mr. Ritter told an audience o main-ly Iraqi veterans and their amilies.“We may have ailed to stop this intime, but at least we did try. It onlyremains or us, the heirs o our vic-tims’ legacy, to have the courageand the character to make sure itnever happens again.”Ritter’s statements were metwith polite applause.
Last to Die in Battle Remembered, American and Iraqi
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By LEN G. WILKINS
BASRA — Following service inIraq and an honorable dischargelast April, Lieutenant SamanthaBlaine returned to Iraq to start asmall construction company.She is ar rom alone. Thegrowth o the postwar economy inIraq has proven so tempting thatdozens o members o the U.S.military chose to remain in Iraq.Thus a region long associatedwith its citizens feeing abroad hasseen unprecedented volumes oimmigration.Seven years ago, Ms. Blainehad no experience with saetyengineering or building codes butwas sent to Basra to assist in therebuilding o the Iraqi inrastruc-ture. Today, her private contract-ing company is beneting rom alocal building boom.“For the rst year o our busi-ness, most o the work was gov-ernment contracts,” said Blaine,“but ater the major inrastructurework was done and the Iraqi econ-omy began to rebound, there wasa surge in demand or new hous-ing.”Ms. Blaine met her husband,Ibrahim Khan, when he was hiredto work as her translator duringthe war. It is a role he continuesto serve as Ms. Blaine’s Arabic im-proves.Ms. Blaine claims that it hasn’tbeen hard to adjust to lie in Iraq.“I expected to have to deal with alot o sexism. But until the inva-sion, this was a modern, secularsociety.”Sergeant Rahim Raqi has alsobeneted rom the new construc-tion, opening an insurance agencythat caters to the constructionindustry. Prior to joining the mili-tary, Mr. Raqi had worked at hisather’s small insurance company.“I was able to get backing or whatsome would have seen as a riskyinvestment, but we were in theblack pretty quickly,” says Mr.Raqi.According to the recent émigrés,the cultural adjustments that arenecessary to move rom the Unit-ed States to Iraq are more thanworth enduring to be a part o thenew Iraq. “Getting sent to Iraq wasthe best thing to happen to me,”said Ms. Blaine. “I’m nally livingthe American Dream.”
The lastAmerican and Iraqi to die during the war will be commemorated by obelisksin downtown Baghdad.
The ormer President appeared perturbed by his own charges against him.
From Page A1 From Page A1
“Now that the war’s over, we’regoing to get to go back to devel-oping exciting new weapon sys-tems, instead o just trotting outthe ones that are proven to work,”said a visibly excited Robert Ste-vens, Lockheed C.E.O., beore areporter inormed him o the Sen-ate moratorium on new weaponssystems development.“Oh,” said Stevens, lookingfushed, and quickly excused him-sel.General David Petraeus hada distinctly ashen look as he at-tempted to put a good ace on thesituation. “I’ve been trying to makesense o all this, and I have to saythat in perspective, we did prettywell,” Petraeus told reporters.“It turns out that in 1917, theBritish made exactly the samemistakes we did,” Petraeus noted.“They told the Iraqis they hadcome ‘not as conquerors but asliberators, to ree you rom gen-erations o tyranny.’ Like us, theywere surprised the Iraqis didn’teel quite the same. The insurgen-cy against the British started inFallujah too, and like us, the Brit-ish Prime Minister warned againstleaving Iraq on the grounds thatthere would be civil war.”Petraeus smiled wearily. “I guessit’s never too late to learn.”
With War Over,Troops Return
Global ProblemTurned IntoGlobal Solution
level rise has been overblown.And one thing I’m sure o, is thatnationalizing private industry isjust another name or thet.”“The private oil interests havebeen involved in thet or de-cades,” responded Deputy Un-der Secretary o the E.P.A. GavinNewsom. “They’ve stolen our air,our oceans, our health, and ourland. They’ve proven they can’trun their business without mas-sive thet.”“I we’re going to give corpora-tions the same rights as people,”said House Speaker Nancy Pelosi,“then we need to hold them ac-countable like people. Whenparents abuse their children, thegovernment takes over. When oilcompanies abuse the planet, thegovernment needs to take overtoo.”Arco C.E.O. Rex W. Tillerson wasphilosophical. “We ought thislong and hard. We did everythingwe could do. But do we want moreblood in the streets? Or do wewant to move on?”“You can’t ght the street,” saidMr. Newsom. “The people are go-ing to do what the people are go-ing to do. And the oil companiesare just going to have live with it.”believes that it was ormer Presi-dent Bush’s trial or high treasonthat spurred the revelations.“There’s nothing to hide any-more,” said Ms. Rice. “We are re-lieved to nally be able tell you,the troops who ought or us, thatwe love our soldiers and we al-ways have. We would never haveput you in such obvious harm’sway.”Ms. Rice also conrmed Secre-tary o Deense Scott Ritter’s rev-elation that he had provided theC.I.A. with documentation in the1990s, when he was a U.N. weap-ons inspector, that Iraq lackedbiological or nuclear weapons pro-grams. “We were then already armore than 99 percent certain thatHussein had zero W.M.D.s and thati he did, he would not be able touse them against us.”
Rice: Troops Never Faced Annihilation Risk
From Page A1
A lone helmet lies in the desert near Atrush, Iraq, a monument to absence.
‘They’ve stolen ourair, our oceans, ourhealth, and our land.They’ve proven theycan’t run their busi-ness without massivethet.’For two millionexiles, temperedhope o return to ashattered land.An American repre-sentative tells theIraqis that someAmericans tried, topolite applause.
Ari Fleischer contributed reporting. Iraqi journalists or The New YorkTimes contributed reporting rom Damacas, Amman, and Stockholm. A number o mothers contributed reporting.
A general learnshis dicult historylessons late.A sheepish ormersecretary expressesrespect and concernor the troops.A move to avoid thedeath penalty bringsits own risks.
oNLINEEXcLUSIVE TIMES3D INTErAcTIVE MoDEL
To explore the interactive, ull- color, virtual monument in adigital 3D architectural rendering,eaturing zooming and panning capabilities, see:
Source:NewYork Times/CBS News poll
To right a longstandingbias, a ocus on thoseghting or change