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Chapter 3

•

Integral Relationsfor a Control Volume

3.1

Discuss Newton’s second law (the linear momentum relation) in these three forms:()

system

d d m m d dt dt

ρ υ

æ öç ÷å

=

å

=

å

=

ç ÷è ø

ò

FaFVFV

Solution:

These questions are just to get the students thinking about the basic laws of mechanics. They are valid and equivalent for constant-mass systems, and we can makeuse of all of them in certain fluids problems, e.g. the #1 form for small elements, #2 formfor rocket propulsion, but the #3 form is control-volume related and thus the mostpopular in this chapter.

3.2

Consider the angular-momentum relation in the form()

Osystem

d d dt

ρ υ

é ùå

= ×

ê úê úë û

ò

MrV

What does

r

mean in this relation? Is this relation valid in both solid and fluidmechanics? Is it related to the

linear

-momentum equation (Prob. 3.1)? In what manner?

Solution:

These questions are just to get the students thinking about angularmomentum versus linear momentum. One might forget that

r

is the position vector fromthe moment-center O to the elements

ρ

d

υ

where momentum is being summed. Perhaps

r

O

is a better notation.

3.3

For steady laminar flow through a long tube (see Prob. 1.12), the axial velocitydistribution is given by

u

=

C(R

2

−

r

2

), where R is the tube outer radius and C is aconstant. Integrate

u

(r) to find the total volume flow

Q

through the tube.

Solution:

The area element for this axisymmetric flow is dA

=

2

π

r dr. From Eq. (3.7),

220

()2.

R

Q u dA C R r rdr Ans

π

= = − =

ò ò

π

4

CR2

Chapter 3

•

Integral Relations for a Control Volume

149

3.4

Discuss whether the following flows are steady or unsteady: (a) flow near anautomobile moving at 55 m/h; (b) flow of the wind past a water tower; (c) flow in a pipeas the downstream valve is opened at a uniform rate; (d) river flow over a spillway of adam; and (e) flow in the ocean beneath a series of uniform propagating surface waves.

Solution:

(a)

steady

(except for vortex shedding) in a frame fixed to the auto.(b)

steady

(except for vortex shedding) in a frame fixed to the water tower.(c)

unsteady

by its very nature (accelerating flow).(d)

steady

except for fluctuating turbulence.(e) Uniform periodic waves are

steady

when viewed in a frame fixed to the waves.

3.5

A theory proposed by S. I. Pai in 1953 gives the following velocity values u(r) forturbulent (high-Reynolds number) airflow in a 4-cm-diameter tube:r, cm 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0u, m/s 6.00 5.97 5.88 5.72 5.51 5.23 4.89 4.43 0.00 Comment on these data vis-a-vis laminar flow, Prof. 3.3. Estimate, as best you can, thetotal volume flow Q through the tube, in m

3

/s.

Solution:

The data can be plotted in the figure below.As seen in the figure, the flat (turbulent) velocities do not resemble the parabolic laminar-flow profile of Prob. 3.3. (The discontinuity at

r

=

1.75 cm is an artifact—we need more

150

Solutions Manual

•

Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition

data for 1.75 <

r

< 2.0 cm.) The volume flow, Q

=

ò

u(2

π

r)dr, can be estimated by anumerical quadrature formula such as Simpson’s rule. Here there are nine data points:

112233445566778899

2(4242424)3,.

r Q ru r u r u r u r u r u r u r u r uFor the given data Q Ans

π

∆

æ ö

= + + + + + + + +

ç ÷è ø

≈

3

0.0059m/s

3.6

When a gravity-driven liquid jetissues from a slot in a tank, as in Fig. P3.6,an approximation for the exit velocitydistribution is 2(),

u g h z

≈ −

where

h

isthe depth of the jet centerline. Near theslot, the jet is horizontal, two-dimensional,and of thickness 2

L

, as shown. Find ageneral expression for the total volumeflow

Q

issuing from the slot; then take thelimit of your result if

.

L h

=

Fig. P3.6

Solution:

Let the slot width be

b

into the paper. Then the volume flow from Eq. (3.7) is

+L1/2L

QudA[2g(hz)]bdz.

Ans

−

= = − = √

ò ò

3/23/2

2b(2g)[(hL)(hL)]3

+−−

In the limit of Lh,

=

this formula reduces to .

Ans

Q(2Lb)(2gh)

3.7

In Chap. 8 a theory gives the velocities for flow past a cylinder:

22r

vUcos(1R/r)

θ

= −

22

vUsin(1R/r)

θ

θ

= − +

Compute the volume flow

Q

passing through surface CC in the figure.

Fig. P3.7

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