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FluidMechWhite5eCh08

FluidMechWhite5eCh08

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10/17/2013

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Chapter 8
Potential Flow and ComputationalFluid Dynamics
8.1
Prove that the streamlines
ψ 
(r,
θ 
) in polar coordinates, from Eq. (8.10), areorthogonal to the potential lines
φ 
(r,
θ 
).
Solution:
The streamline slope is represented by
rstreamlinepotential line
drv/rrdv(1/r)(/)drrd
θ 
∂φ ∂ θ φ θ θ 
= = =
æ öç ÷è ø
|
1
 Since the
ψ 
 
slope
=
 
1
 /(
φ 
 
slope), the two sets of lines are
orthogonal
.
 Ans.
 
8.2
The steady plane flow in the figurehas the polar velocity components v
θ 
 
=
 
rand v
r
 
=
0. Determine the circulation
Γ 
aroundthe path shown.
Solution:
Start at the inside right corner,point A, and go around the complete path:
Fig. P8.2
π π 
Γ = = ++ +
ò 
Ñ
21221211
0()()0()()
 R R R R R R R R
Vds
 
( )
or:.
 Ans
 RR
=
2221
 
8.3
Using cartesian coordinates, show that each velocity component (u, v, w) of apotential flow satisfies Laplace’s equation separately if 
2
φ 
 
=
0.
Solution:
This is true because the order of integration may be changed in each case:
φ ∂ φ ∂ 
æ ö
== = =
ç ÷è ø
222
Example:()(0)0.xxx
u Ans
 
8.4
Is the function
1/r 
a legitimate velocity potential in plane polar coordinates? If so,what is the associated stream function
ψ 
(r,
θ 
)?
 
 
Chapter 8
 
 
Potential Flow and Computational Fluid Dynamics
563
 
Solution:
Evaluation of the laplacian of (
1/r 
) shows that it is
not 
legitimate:
∂ ∂ 
é ùé ùæ ö æ ö æ ö
= = =
ç ÷ ç ÷ ç ÷ê úê úè ø è ø è øë ûë û
22
11111rr.rrrrrrrr
 Ans
3
10Illegitimater
 
8.5
Consider the two-dimensional velocity distribution u
=
–By, v
=
 
+
Bx, where B is aconstant. If this flow possesses a stream function, find its form. If it has a velocitypotential, find that also. Compute the local angular velocity of the flow, if any, anddescribe what the flow might represent.
Solution:
It does has a stream function, because it satisfies continuity:uv000(OK);ThusuByandvBxxyyx
ψ ψ ∂ ∂ 
+ = + = = = = =
 
ψ 
=
Solve for().
 Ans
++
22
Bxyconst2
 It does not have a velocity potential, because it has a non-zero curl:
∂ ω φ ∂ 
æ ö
= = = =
ç ÷è ø
vu2curl [B(B)]2B0thus .xy
 Ans
Vkkkdoes not exist
 The flow represents solid-body rotation at uniform clockwise angular velocity
 B
.
8.6
If the velocity potential of a realistic two-dimensional flow is
φ 
 
=
Cln(
 x
2
 
+
 
 y
2
)
1/2
,where C is a constant, find the form of the stream function
ψ 
(
 x
,
 y
).
 Hint 
: Try polarcoordinates.
Solution:
Using polar coordinates is certainly an excellent hint! Then the velocitypotential translates simply to
φ 
 
=
C ln(
), which is a line source. Equation (8.12
b
) alsoshows that,
ψ θ 
æ ö
= =
ç ÷è ø
Eq. (8.12):.
b C Ans
1
yCtanx
 
8.7
Consider a flow with constant density and viscosity. If the flow possesses a velocitypotential as defined by Eq. (8.1), show that it exactly satisfies the full Navier-Stokesequation (4.38). If this is so, why do we back away from the full Navier-Stokes equationin solving potential flows?
 
564
 
Solutions Manual
 
 
Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition
 
Solution:
If 
V
 
=
 
φ 
, the full Navier-Stokes equation is satisfied identically:
2
dpbecomesdt
 ρ ρ µ 
= + + ∇
VgV
 
22
Vp(gz)(),where the last term is .t2
∂φ  ρ ρ µ φ ∂ 
é ùæ öæ ö
+= +
ê úç ÷ç ÷è øê úè øë û
zero
 The viscous (final) term drops out identically for potential flow, and what remains is
2
Vpgzconstant()t2
∂φ ρ 
+ + + =
Bernoulli’s equation
 The Bernoulli relation is an exact solution of Navier-Stokes for potential flow. We don’texactly “back away,” we need also to solve
2
φ 
 
=
0 in order to find the velocity potential.
8.8
For the velocity distribution of Prob. 8.5,u
=
–By, v
=
 
+
Bx, evaluate the circulation
Γ 
 around the rectangular closed curve definedby (x, y)
=
(1, 1), (3, 1), (3, 2), and (1, 2).
Solution:
Given
Γ 
 
=
 
ò 
 
V · ds
around thecurve, divide the rectangle into (a, b, c, d)pieces as shown:
Fig. P8.8
abcd
udsvdsudsvds(B)(2)(3B)(1)(2B)(2)(B)(1)
Γ = + + + = + + +
ò ò ò ò 
 or.
 Ans
Γ =
+
4B
 Since, from Prob. 8.5,
|
curl
V
|
 
=
2B, also
Γ 
 
=
 
|
curl
V
|
A
region
 
=
(2B)(2)
=
4B. (Check)
8.9
Consider the two-dimensional flowu
=
–Ax, v
=
 
+
Ay, where A is a constant.Evaluate the circulation
Γ 
around therectangular closed curve defined by (x, y)
=
 (1, 1), (4, 1), (4, 3), and (1, 3). Interpretyour result especially
vis-a-vis
the velocitypotential.
Fig. P8.9

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