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Perception

Perception

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Published by chandni jindal

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Published by: chandni jindal on Mar 23, 2010
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05/19/2013

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Perception
Meaning of perception:
It is surprising that we receive some objects and reject others. It is equally surprising that an objectreceived is understood differently by different people. Some view a painting as beautiful while others maysee the same painting as ugly. The answer is perception, a strong component of human organism.
Definition:
In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. But what is seenis influenced by the perceiver, the object, and the environment. The meaning of perception will becomplete when all the three aspects are stressed. A few definitions of perception are given below:(i) “Perception is the process of becoming aware of situations, of adding meaningful associations tosensations.”(ii) “Perception can be defined as the process of receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking,and reacting to sensory stimuli or data.”(iii) “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensoryimpressions in order to give meaning to their environments.”(iv) “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about hisenvironment - seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, and smelling. The study of these perceptional processesshows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables - the objects or events being perceived, the environment in which perception occurs, and the individual doing the perceiving.The last definition is comprehensive.
Nature & Importance of Perception:
We often behave on the basis of what we perceive. What we perceive may not always be true. In thedarkness, we often mistake a rope for a snake and consequently, we make a hasty retreat or use a stick. No, wonder that half a glass of water is viewed as half empty by some and half full by others.It is nothing but perception wherein one draws relevant information from the environment and attachesmeaning to it. There are unique differences in the perceptions of individuals even though the perceivedobject or environment may be a stable one makes people behave differently.People appraise different aspects of the environment on the basis of their individual experiences andevaluate what they experience in terms of their needs and values.A specific example would be the universal assumption made by managers that subordinates always want promotions, when, in fact, many subordinates really feel psychologically forced to accept a promotion inother words, the perceptual world of the manager is quite different from the perceptual world of thesubordinate, and both may be very different from reality.
 
It is equally surprising that an object received is understood differently by different people. Some view a painting as beautiful while others may see the same painting as ugly. Why these phenomena? The answer is
perception,
a strong component of human organism.Every person perceives the world and approaches the life problems differently. This factor is veryimportant
in understanding human behavior
. We buy what we like best and what is best. It is becauseof perception that a particular job may appear a good job to one and bad to another.If people behave on the basis of their perception then changing behavior in a pre determined directioncould be made easier by understanding their present perception of the world.People act as they perceive and different people perceive things differently. People’s perception isdetermined by their needs.Perception is an important dynamite for the manager who wants to avoid making errors when dealing with people and events in the work settings. A manger’s response to a situation, for example, may bemisinterpreted by a subordinate who perceives the situation very differently. In order to deal withsubordinates effectively, a manager must understand their perception properly.
Perceptual Process:
Perception process is composed of six processes, viz.,
receiving, selecting
,
organizing, interpreting,checking, and reacting
to stimuli. These processes are influenced by the perceiver and the situation.
Receiving:
Perception is a process of receiving and interpreting stimuli. The perceptual process begins when stimuliare received through sensory organs.These stimuli enter our organism through the sensory organs-vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste. We maynot be able to report the existence of certain stimuli, but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject totheir influence. Stimuli need not be external to us they may be internal also. External stimuli include lightwaves, sound waves, mechanical energy or pressure, and chemical energy from objects that one can smelland taste. Internal stimuli include energy generated by muscles, food passing through the digestive system,and glands secreting behaviour influencing hormones.
II. Perceptional Selectivity (Selecting Stimuli):
The process of filtering information received by our senses is called selecting stimuli or selectiveattention. Several factors influence selective attention. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli:There are
(A) External and (B) Internal
.
(A) External Factors Influencing Selection
:The external factors influencing selection are nature, location, intensity, size, contrast, repetition, motion,and novelty and familiarity.
(i) Nature:
By nature we mean, whether the object is visual or auditory, and whether it involves pictures, people or animals. It is well known that pictures attracts attention more readily than words, that a picturewith human beings attracts attention more than a picture of inanimate objects alone, and that a rhymingauditory passage attracts attention more readily than the same passage presented as a narrative.
 
(ii) Location:
The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of theeyes in the centre of a page. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine, a position inthe upper portion of a page is more favorable than one in the lower portions, and the left hand sidereceives more attention than the right hand side.
(iii) Intensity:
Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. A loudnoise, strong odor, or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound, weak odor, or dim light.Advertisers use intensity to gain customers’ attention.
(iv) Size:
Generally, objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. The maintenanceengineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one, even though the smaller one costs as much and is as important to the operation. A 6 foot 4 inch, 260-pound supervisor may receivemore attention from his subordinates than a 5 foot 10 inch 160-pound supervisor. In advertising, full-pagespread attracts more attention than a few lines in the classified section.
(v) Contrast:
The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background, or which are not what people are expecting, will receive their attention.Figure illustrates this perpetual principle. The black circle on the right appears larger than the one on theleft because of the background circles. In fact, both black circles are of the same size.In a similar manner, plant safety signs, which have black lettering on a yellow background or whitelettering on a red background, are attention drawing. Training managers utilize this factor in organizingtraining programmes in places far away from away from work places to create contrast atmosphere.
(vi) Movement:
The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an objectthat is standing still. In a work environment, the attention of a workman will be focused more on aconveyor belt than on painting on walls or illumination. Advertisers capitalize on this principle by creatingsigns, which incorporate moving parts.
(vii) Repetition:
The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawingthan a single one. The same advertisement of a product flashed daily on TV is based on the principle of repetition. This principle also explains why supervisors have to give directions to workers over and over again for even simple tasks.

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