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cancer screening

cancer screening

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Published by j.doe.hex_87

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Published by: j.doe.hex_87 on Mar 23, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Principles of Screening
yThe disease should be an important public health problem in
terms of its frequency and/or severity.
yThe natural history of the disease presents a window of
opportunity for early detection. For cancer this generally refers to
a detectable preclinical phase (DPCP)
yAn effective treatment should be available that favorably alters
the natural history of the disease. Usually for cancer this means a
reduction in cause-specific mortality.
yThe treatment should be more effective if initiated during the
presymptomatic (or earlier) stage than during the symptomatic
(or later) stage
yA suitable screening test should be available, that is, one that is
accurate, acceptable to the population, fairly easy to administer,
safe, and relatively inexpensive
yThere should be an appropriate screening strategy for the target
Principles of Screening (2)
The screening guidelines should be based on good scientific evidence (usually based on
results of a randomized controlled clinical trial) and economically feasible:
Screening programs should have high rates of participation from the eligible

Screening programs for a particular geographic area should take into account
specific resources available for screening, diagnosis, and treatment so that countries
can focus on optimal recommendations based on available resources.

Screening programs should be sensitive to patient and provider concerns.
Screening programs should ensure prompt follow-up of positive tests with a
diagnostic examination and prompt treatment of cases.
Screening programs should be cost-effective.
Screening programs should be monitored and regularly evaluated.

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