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Differentiation and Integration

# Differentiation and Integration

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11/14/2012

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C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Differentiation
If y =
1
dy,dx
n n
kx nkx
=
[Remember,
dydx
=gradient of tangent to curve y = f(x) ]
Revision examples
: Differentiate the following functions;
i)

2
1
y x
=

ii)

y x
=

iii)

3
4
y x
=

iv)
y=
25
x

v)
2
35
y x
=
vi)
4
x
y
=

vii)
3
6
x
y
=

vii)

()
3
y x
=
Solutioni)
2 2 1 32 3

1222
dy y x x xdx x x
= = = = =
ii)
1 1 112 2 212

111 222
dy y x x x xdx x
= = ⇒ = = =
iii)
3 3 1 43

44 3 x 412
dy y x x xdx x
= = = =
iv)
1 1 1 22

252525 1 x 2525
dy y x x x x dxx
= = = = =
v)
2 3 32 3

333662 x55555
dy y x x xdx x x
= = = = =
vi)
134434
4
114
1 4
1144
dy xdx
y x x x x
= =
= = =
vii)
23
3
1 1 213 3 3
x
1266623
x
dy y x x xdxx
= = = = =
viii)
()
3 32 2
1
132
x
3322
dy y x x x xdx
= = = =
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.docXaverian Page 13/23/2010

C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Another Revision Example
:
Given that
y x x
=
, find
dydx
and hence find the gradient of the curve at thepoint (9,27)
Solution

312 2
11+12
12

33x22
x x
dyx y x x x x xdx
= =
= = = =
When
3999,22
dy xdx
= = =
, so gradient at the point is
92
The Chain Rule
Used to differentiate a composite function (i.e. one function inside another function) e.g.
()
122
1
y x
= +
.We start by letting t = the inner function
:
in the above example t =
2
1
x
+
The chain rule says:
x
dy dydt dx dt dx
=
Example
: Differentiate
()
122
1
y x
= +
SolutionLet t =
2
1
x
+
so
12
y
=
12121212
xxx 2 x
12 and21221 2:
x
dydt Then x dx ddy dydt dx dt dxt x xt NB wemust give answerintermsof  o
= ====
=
2
var 1
riginal iable sub t x
= +
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.docXaverian Page 23/23/2010

C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
1212
22
(1)(1)
x x x x
= +=+
Example
: Use the chain rule to find
dydx
when
( )
62
2
y x
=
Solution
:
2 65
2,
2,6
Let  x
x y dydt dx d
=
= ==
()
5552
xx
=6t2=12t=122
x
dy dydt Thendx dt dx x x x
=
NB:
To apply the chain rule
quickly
remember:
( ) ( )
()()
4333 2
x
. 1412
dyd outer function x inner functiondx dt dxe g y xdy x xdx
== =
Exercise: C3/4 textbook, Ex 1, P.69, Q. 2(a,c), 3(a,c,e), 4, 8/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.docXaverian Page 33/23/2010

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