Why Has the French Socialist PartyShunned the Rhetoric of the Third Way?
An Explanatory Model Extended toBritain, Germany, and Italy
David LeifertThe Lauder Institute, University of Pennsylvania
A THESISPresented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in PartialFulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of ArtsApril 2006Thesis Supervisor: Dr. Julia Lynch
Reginald Jones Thesis Prize Nominee
Table of Contents
1. European Social Democracy and the French Exception: Introductory Analysis 41.1. The Evolution of European Social Democracy 41.2. The French Exception 51.3. Introduction of the Empirical Question: Why the French Exception? 62. The Third Way – Analysis of a Political Phenomenon 82.1. Reactions to the Emergence of the Third Way 82.2. Description of the Third Way – The Schröder/Blair Manifesto 92.3. Critics of the Third Way and Alternative Interpretations 113. Explanatory Model for Socialist Party Adoption of the Third Way 143.1. Explanatory 5-Factor Model 143.2. Categorization of Policy Factors 163.3. Categorization of Political Factors 204. Application to the French Case – A Missed Opportunity for Change 244.1. Assessment of the French “Goodness of Fit” 254.2. Assessment of the French “Mediating Factors” 295. Application to the British Case: Blair’s New Labour 335.1. Assessment of the British “Goodness of Fit” 345.2. Assessment of the British “Mediating Factors” 386. Application to the German Case – Schröder’s Neue Mitte 416.1. Assessment of the German “Goodness of Fit” 416.2. Assessment of the German “Mediating Factors” 447. Application to the Italian Case – D’Alema’s Progressive Initiatives 477.1. Assessment of the Italian “Goodness of Fit” 477.2. Assessment of the Italian “Mediating Factors” 518. Conclusion 54Bibliography