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Published by: venkatesh on Mar 24, 2010
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Shaheed – E – AzamBhagat Singh“Jithey Duldey Khoon Shaheedan de..Takdeer Badaldi Komaan di..”
Bhagat SinghSeptember 28, 1907–March 23, 1931
Bhagat Singh at the age of 21
Place of birth:Lyallpur, Punjab, IndiaPlace of death: Lahore, Punjab, IndiaMovement: Indian Independence movementMajororganizations:Naujawan Bharat Sabha,Kirti Kissan Partyand Hindustan Socialist Republican AssociationBhagat Si
gh (September 28, 1907–March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedomfighter, considered to be one of the most famous revolutionaries of the Indianindependence movement. For this reason, he is often referred to as Shaheed BhagatSingh (the word
means "martyr"). He is also believed by many to be oneof the earliest Marxists in India. He was one of the leaders and founders of theHindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).Born to a family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities againstthe British Raj in India, Bhagat Singh, as a teenager, began approaching the
socialist way of thought and became involved in numerous revolutionaryorganizations. He quickly rose in the ranks of the Hindustan RepublicanAssociation (HRA) and became one of its leaders, converting it to the HSRA. Singhgained support when he underwent a 63 day fast in jail, demanding equal rights forIndian and British political prisoners. He was hanged for shooting a police officer inresponse to the killing of veteran social activistLala Lajpat Rai. His legacyprompted youth in India to begin fighting for Indian independence and alsoincreased the rise of socialism in India.
Shiv Ram Hari Rajguru
1906 - 1931
Shiv Ram Hari Rajguru was born in an average middle-class Hindu Brahminfamily at Khed in Poona district in 1906. He came to Varanasi at a very earlyage where he learnt Sanskrit and read the Hindu religious scriptures. Hehad a good memory and learnt by heart the 'Laghu Siddhant Kaumudi'. Heloved physical exercises and was associated with a number of suchassociations. He had great admiration for Shivaji and his guerilla tactics.At Varanasi, he came in contact with revolutionaries. He joined themovement and became an active member of the Hindustan SocialistRepublican Army (H.S.R.A). He was known in the party under thepseudonym of Raghunath. Rajguru had fearless spirit and indomitablecourage. The only object of his adoration and worship was his motherlandfor whose liberation he considered no sacrifice too great. He was a closeassociate of Chandra Shekhar Azad, Sardar Bhagat Singh and Jatin Dasand his field of activity was U.P and Punjab, with Kanpur, Agra and Lahoreas his headquarters. Rajguru was a good shot and was regarded as thegunman of the party. He took part in various activities of the revolutionarymovement, the most important being Saunder's murder. Lala Lajpat Rai, aneminent nationalist leader and popular amongst the revolutionaries, was
fatally wounded in a police lathi- charge on 20 October 1928, while leadinga procession against the Simon Commission, and died on 17 November 1928. The revolutionaries planned to avenge Lalaji's death by killing thePolice Superintendent, Scott and the Deputy Superitendent of Police,Saunders who were responsible for the lathi charge leading to the death of Lalaji. Chandra Shekhar Azad, Shiv Ram Rajguru, Bhagat Singh and JaiGopal were deputed for the work. On 17 December 1928, while Saunderscame out of his office and started his motor- cycle, he was shot dead infront of the police headquarters at Lahore by Rajguru. Azad shot deadChannan Singh, a Head Constable, who wanted to chase the threerevolutionaries. All of them escaped through the D.A.V. College compound:The same night posters of the HSRA declaring "Saunders is dead. Lalaji isavenged" were put up throughout the city of Lahore. On 20 December,Rajguru left Lahore disguised as Bhagat Singh's servant, who travelled in afirst class compartment with the wife and the young son of therevolutionary Bhagawati Charan. He left Bhagat Singh at Lucknow andwent underground.Later Bhagat Singh was arrested in the Assembly Bomb Case and severalother revolutionaries were arrested with the help of approvers (Jai Gopal,Phanindra Nath and Hansraj Vohra). Rajguru was arrested at Poon on 30September 1929 and a revolver with fourteen cartridges was recoveredfrom a box where he was sleeping. The Government started a case againstsixteen persons (including Rajguru), known as the Lahore ConspiracyCase. Judgement was delivered on 7 October 1930, Sardar Bhagat Singh,Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death and the other accused wereawarded various terms of imprisonment. The whole nation was awakenedand the names of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev became as popular as that of Mahatma Gandhi. Meetings, processions and representationswere made for commutation of their death sentence. Mahatma Gandhi andthe leaders of the Indian National Congress attempted to save their lives,but they failed. An appeal to the Privy Council was alos rejected. Rajgurualong with his two comrades was hanged in the Lahore jail in the eveningof 23 March 1931 and their bodies were burnt under police supervision. Atthe time of his martyrdom, Rajguru was hardly twenty- three years of age.

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