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STV and AMS

STV and AMS

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Published by Pax McFarlane
Single Transferable Vote and Additional Members System made a bit easier than in the actual notes!
Single Transferable Vote and Additional Members System made a bit easier than in the actual notes!

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Published by: Pax McFarlane on Mar 24, 2010
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10/17/2011

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Single transferable vote (STV)
. A preferential system used in multi-member districts. Towin election candidates must exceed a specified minimum quota of first-preference votes.Voters’ preferences are reallocated to other continuing candidates whenan unsuccessful candidate is excluded or if an elected candidate has asurplus. The overall effect of this system is proportionality in the electedassembly while elected officials have a link to a specific constituency.
Proportional representation systems.
 Their major advantage is thatthey produce a better representation of the whole spectrum of voters’preferences. PR systems encourage the participation of minorities andunder-represented groups in political life by giving them a better chanceof transforming their votes into seats at elections. However, this buildingblock of democracy can turn into a stumbling block when the variety of views and opinions in the government that emerges hinders consensusover a particular issue. In general, coalition governments are less effectivein developing a common policy and can be less stable than majoritariangovernments.
It’s more proportional because if your first choice is elected, then their surplus votes are transferred to your second choice and so on until allcandidates are either elected or eliminated.It gives the voter more power and sway in who is elected.There are less wasted votes as you have more than one choice so one of  your choices is more likely to be elected.Minority parties are more likely to be elected in meaning a wider representation of views and ideas.There might not be a majority government which means a lot of conflicting ideas can happen and good policies of bigger parties won’t get  put through. Coalition governments are less effective in developing acommon policy.It’s confusing to understand; most voters will understand the way they vote but not how it is calculated.
 
The Single Transferable Vote (STV)
 STV is a preferential voting system (as AV) in multi-member constituencies.Voters rank the candidates according to their preference, and each constituencyelects between three and five MPs, depending on its size. Those candidatesreaching a certain quota of votes are elected. Surplus votes for the electedcandidates and the votes for the least supported candidate are redistributed onthe basis of voters' second choices. This process continues until the requirednumber of MPs reach the necessary quota and are returned to parliament.
Strengths:
 • STV is one of the most proportional systems, producing a result which closelyreflects the distribution of votes.• In Britain, a government would almost certainly have to be a coalition of parties, which could end destructive adversarialism (opposition for opposition'ssake) and produce consensual and moderate government, better reflecting thewishes of the people.• It retains a constituency link and, compared to other voting systems, ensuresthat many more voters are likely to have a meaningful vote which helps selectan MP from their constituency who represents their views.
Weaknesses:
 • Opponents of STV argue that the coalition governments it is likely to produce inBritain would be weak, divided and indecisive.• Coalition governments tend to be created by political deals in "smoke-filledrooms" which the voters have no control over.• The government which emerges bears no relation to the individual partiesmost voters support.• STV is also a complex system which could confuse voters and take severaldays to calculate.• The large, multi-member constituencies erode the clear and direct linkbetween voters and their MP in single-member constituencies.
Where used:
The Australian Senate, the Republic of Ireland, Tasmania, Maltaand for elections to the European Parliament.

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