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Brain Computer Interface-1

Brain Computer Interface-1

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Published by itdep_gpcet7225
submitted by college students of
G.Pulliah college of engineering and technology
Andhra pradesh
India
submitted by college students of
G.Pulliah college of engineering and technology
Andhra pradesh
India

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Published by: itdep_gpcet7225 on Mar 25, 2010
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09/26/2010

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Seminar onPresented byS.Sabiha SultanaIIIrd IT(2007-2011)From UNISYS group
 
 Brain Computer InterfaceAbstract
The human brain is of the size of a
 
deflated volleyball which weighs about 3 pounds.We live at a time when the disabled are on the leading edge of a broader societaltrend toward the use of assistive technology known as Brain Computer Interface. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a collaboration between a brain and a device that enables signals from the brain to direct some external activity, such as control of acursor or a prosthetic limb. The interface enables a direct communications pathwaybetween the brain and the object to be controlled With the advent of miniaturewireless tech, electronic gadgets have stepped up the invasion of the body throughinnovative techniques. Firstly This paper deals with as to how this mechanism issupported by the brain . In the later sections describes its applications ,current research on this technique ,real life examples and concluding it with its advantagesand drawbacks.
Introduction:
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)provides a new communicationchannel between the human brainand the computer. The 100 billionneurons communicate via minuteelectrochemical impulses, shiftingpatterns sparking like fireflies on asummer evening, that producemovement, expression, words.Mental activity leads to changes of electrophysiological signals. TheBCI system detects such changes andtransforms it into a control signal.In the case of cursor control, forexample, the signal is transmitteddirectly from the brain to themechanism directing the cursor,rather than taking the normal routethrough the body's neuromuscularsystem from the brain to the fingeron a mouse. By reading signals froman array of neurons and usingcomputer chips and programs totranslate the signals into action, BCIcan enable a person suffering fromparalysis to write a book or control amotorized wheelchair or prostheticlimb through thought alone Manyphysiological disorders such asAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) or injuries such as high-levelspinal cord injury can disrupt thecommunication path between thebrain and the body. This is wherebrain computer interface comes intoplay contributing for beneficial realtime services and applications.
What is Brain ComputerInterface
The Wonder Machine – HumanBrainThe reason a BCI works at all isbecause of the way our brainsfunction. Our brains are filled withneurons, individual nerve cellsconnected to one another bydendrites and axons. Every time wethink, move, feel or remembersomething, our neurons are at work.That work is carried out by smallelectric signals that zip from neuron
 
to neuron as fast as 250 mph. Thesignals are generated by differencesin electric potential carried by ionson the membrane of each neuron.Although the paths the signals takeare insulated by something calledmyelin, some of the electric signalescapes. Scientists can detect thosesignals, interpret what they mean anduse them to direct a device of somekind. It can also work the other wayaround. For example, researcherscould figure out what signals are sentto the brain by the optic nerve whensomeone sees the color red. Theycould rig a camera that would sendthose exact signals into someone'sbrain whenever the camera saw red,allowing a blind person to "see"without eyes.Fig1.How Brain ComputerInterfaceCortical PlasticityThe brain actually remains flexibleeven into old age.This concept,known as cortical plasticity, meansthat the brain is able to adapt inamazing ways to new circumstances.Learning something new orpartaking in novel activities formsnew connections between neuronsand reduces the onset of age-relatedneurological problems. If an adultsuffers a brain injury, other parts of the brain are able to take over thefunctions of the damaged portion.
Approaches:
Invasive BCIs are implanted directlyinto the grey matter of the brainduring neurosurgery. As they rest inthe grey matter, invasive devicesproduce the highest quality signals of BCI devices but are prone to scar-tissue build-up, causing the signal tobecome weaker or even lost as thebody reacts to a foreign object in thebrain.
 
The easiest and least invasive methodis a set of electrodes -- a device knownas an electroencephalograph (EEG) --attached to the scalp. The electrodes canread brain signals. However, the skullblocks a lot of the electrical signal, and itdistorts what does get through. To get ahigher-resolution signal, scientists canimplant electrodes directly into the graymatter of the brain itself, or on thesurface of the brain, beneath the skull.This allows for much more directreception of electric signals and allowselectrode placement in the specific areaof the brain where the appropriatesignals are generated. This approach hasmany problems, however. It requires

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